80 Multiple choice questions
- - Gothic literature and reached it's wealth/abundance in the 14th century.
- e.g well preserved cathedral of Santa Maria del Mal - The spacing of the columns is the widest of any Gothic church in Europe.
- The main characteristics of this art are big spaces, slenderness, majesty, vertical lines, spacious vaults, high ceilings and brightness.
- Great civil art not found only in religious buildings like Romanesque, but Gothic is also a great civil art. Mainly in cities
reflects the consolidation of civilian political power.
- - great Catalan poet of the 15th century also from Valencia
- poetry he initiates a rupture with Occitan language and a departure from the style of troubadour poetry not to the extent of Ausias.
- - Ferran II (1479-1516) imposed the inquisition from Castile on Catalan islands in 1487
- this brought a protest from all the Catalan-Aragonese Confederation nobody wanted the imposition of the castilian inquisition because it was "against the Catalan
Constitution of freedom, uses and practices of the land."
- Barcelona opposed the inquisition for three years expelling all the inquisitors from the city
but the royal will supported by Rome was imposed on
- Catalonia, the persecution and expulsion of jews who were a backbone of catalonia had terrible consequences for the Catalan economy.
- each county had a count.
In 1705, during the War of Succession, Catalan delegates and the
plenipotentiary agent of Queen Anne of England signed the Treaty of
- In the treaty, Catalonia's entry into the war was agreed on condition that it received logistical support from England, with a special emphasis on England ensuring the defence of the Catalan historical Constitutional system, whatever the outcome of the war.
- - The great poetic figure of this period of Catalan literature is Ausias March (1397-1459)
- Knight & Poet from Valencia but one of the most important poet of Valencia literature
- 1st poet to free himself entirely from Occitan language, wrote in catalan
- dominant theme of his poetry is love
- he portrays women as human beings, with personality and intelligence in his poetry
-very personal, dramatic attitude
- 125 poems containing uncompromising analysis of the nature of human love.
- imitated by the great Castilian poets of the Golden Age.
- - After the treaty of 1302 the almogavers who had fought for Frederic were in Sicily unemployed.
- Leader Roger de Flor, led the Catalan army the Gran Catalan Company went to Contantinpole and won many battles.
- Roger De Flor was honoured with the title of Caesar of the Empire of Constantinople then a party of powerful nobles murder Roger de Flor.
- The Great Catalan company took violent revenge (The catalan revenge) and conquered the duchy of Athens and Neopatria which were conquered to the Sicilian crown and later to the kingdom of Catalonia & Aragon.
The Catalans stayed 77 years in Greece.
- - Occitania & Catalonia had several cultural links: language, troubadours and art.
- State never became a reality due to the rivalry with the French.
- The battle of the Muret (1213) against the French when the Catalan King Pere I was killed defending the Cathars (catars) ended the claims of Occitania.
- the son of Pere I signed a treaty with France in which he surrendering his rights to Occitania and keeping Roussilion, Cardigan and Montpellier.
- - 1700 king Carlos II of Spain died without a heir resulted in a war disastrous for Catalonia.
- two european dynasties fighting for the Spanish throne
the Habsburg (Austria):England Holland, Portugal and Austria backed the Habsburg candidate, Archduke Charles of Austria.
- Catalonia (Balearic Islands, Aragon and Valencia) backed the Habsburg and signed an alliance with England (1705) for english support against France.
- Bourbons (France): Castile and France backed the Bourbon candidate, Philip D'anjou (grandson of the king of France Louis XIV).
- Charles entered Barcelona with the approval of the Catalans, from Barcelona he marched to Madrid but Philip attacked and drove Charles to Valencia.
- - After the death of Pere II his realm was divided between two of his sons:
-After the death of Peter II, his realm was given to his son Alfons II who died soon after and the realm went to his brother James, James II.
Sicily went to Frederic.
Majorca and the territories north of the Pyrenees were still under the rule of James (brother of Peter).
-The pope declared a crusade war against Catalonia & France invaded Catalonia in 1284.
The french was defeated by the Catalana admiral Roger de Lour at the Battle of Les Formigues.
- - Les corts is still the most important institution during the 14th & 15th centuries
- it continued to represent the clergy, nobility, and the citizens.
- At the time of king Pere III Les Corts instituted the Generalitat which had three deputies and ruled Catalonia in the name of the king
- - Catalan modernism was manifested in literature and visual arts but greatest accomplishment is architecture.
- Catalan Modernisme is characterized by a marked taste for asymmetry, the curve, decoration and dynamic shapes.
- It incorporates new techniques into its works using stone with great imagination and developing unexpected possibilities of ceramics, ironwork, steel and stained glass
In architecture, the most outstanding figures are Lluís Domènech i Montaner who created the Hospital de Sant Pau and the Palau de la Música Catalana, and Antoni Gaudí.
- Antoni Gaudí was influenced by the forms of Gothic architecture but transforming them into shapes of nature.
- Amongst his most distinguished works we find the cathedral "Sagrada Familia," "Güell Park," "Casa Milà," and "Casa Batlló".
- - century of the bourgeoisie : in politics, social values and in ideas.
- century in which workers movements and nationalism started
- starvation and plagues disappeared from Europe and there was an increase in population
- The steam machine - were a great invention for commerce (steam engines, trains, boats) and a new energy source for production thus several countries in Europe were well into industrialization.
- - The population increased in Catalonia in the first half of the 19th century.
- Agriculture and commerce flourished but the main economic and social change came as a result of the high rate of industrialization.
- Commerce could not compete with England and its big colonial market.
- During the industrial revolution the working class movement became very strong defending workers rights.
- There was a constant struggle between the working class and the new industrial bourgeoisie
- - most famous king in Catalonia, son of King Pere I (died in battle of Muret)
- Also king of Aragon, Cerdagne, Roussillon, and Montpellier.
- Energetic man who took control of Majorca (1229) and Valencia (1238) in fight against Moors, increasing the territory of the Crown.
- Catalonia became a powerful country
- Wrote the chronicle of James I (political achievements & campaign) in Catalan.
- Les Corts began to function as a political assembly
- established the basis for the Consell de Cent (council of the hundred) of Barcelona.
- During his reing Barcelona became a very important commercial port and the Consolat de Mar was written.
- gave Catalonia, Valencia and Aragon to his son Pere and Majorca Eivissa and the territories north of Pyrenees to his son Jaune.
- - characterized by the wealth and detail of its decorative work.
- aesthetic reaction against industrialization with its uses of the symbols of nature.
- Phenomenon that revealed the conscience of a people that wanted to integrate in a way of life that was culture and fully European, all social classes identified with modernisme.
- connected with Catalanisme, idea was to develop a
- Catalan culture with Barcelona as its capital that will break the cultural dependence with spain.
Catalonia the Autonomous Government is called Generalitat de Catalunya
and it is made up of the Parliament, the President and the Executive
The Generalitat holds exclusive jurisdiction over communications, transportation, environment, commerce, public safety, local governments and over different aspects of culture.
- It has its own police force and administers civil law within its community. The Generalitat has several offices around the world.
- - Crowning of Fernando (1412-1416) - trastamara dynasty begins in catalan-aragonese confederation
- The Generalitat assumed responsibility for defending the constitutions of catalonia and acting as a moderator for the authoritarianism of the new dynasty.
- the generalist gradually became the highest representation of catalonia and defender of its constitutions and liberties.
- - 1492 (Ferran and Isabel) Castile reconquered Granada from the Moors and arrived in America
- Castile gave the monopoly of the commerce with the new world to the city of Sevilla
- The Byzantine empire fell under the turks in 1452 and Catalonia lost all its oriental commerce. therefore Catalonia was left without any markets.
- Since the trendy of Tordesillas (1494) Castile had all the rights over America, aside from Portugal that had jurisdiction over part of the New World. Thus Catalans and other citizens of Catalonia and Aragon were forbidden to go to America.
- Columbus was a Catalan from Barcelona called Colom.
- - the Catalan Parliament the representatives of the citizens voted for resistance.
- the generalist agreed to follow the decision of the people therefore Catalonia opted for resistance against Felipe V.
- Spanish king conquered Catalonia which only Barcelona was still resisting in the end.
- - Grandson of Jaume II
- protected literature and the arts
interested in the development of cartography and astronomy
- Pere's rule concentrated on consolidating his own possessions and setting limits to the expansion of Castile.
- had an endless war with Sardinia he reintegrated Majorca to the Catalan-Aragonese Kingdom by the request of its citizens
16th and the 17th centuries Catalan literature experienced a decline
due to the constant interference of Castile in Catalan lands.
- during these centuries Castile launched a campaign of expoliation, basically stealing works of Catalan literature, translating them into Castilian and making them pass for Castilian literature
- In the 18th century after the Decree of New Plan and the forceful integration of the Catalan nation into the newly formed State of Spain ruled by Castile, there was a resurgence of popular Catalan theatre that produced some works of high literary value.
- These popular plays were performed in spaces provided by Catalan guilds due to only plays written in spanish were permitted in theatres
- the performances were attended by all population except the aristocracy
Example d'un mestre sabater , EN Saloon i la Margaradi
the Balearic Islands, Valencia, La Franja and Carxe have formed part of
the Spanish State since the 18th century, when they were brutally
conquered by Spain.
- - Narrative verse represented by Jaume another Valencia
most important work the book of women one of the most misogynous works ever written.
- writes in a style close to the spoken language of the time percursor of the Castilian picaresque novel.
- The Franks
- -The son of Pere III : Joan I (1387-1396) was only concerned with the arts sports and hunting.
- Founded the Jocs Florals (poetry contest)
died at a young ate falling from a horse.
- Succeded by his brother Marti I the Humane, the last king of the Catalan dynasty (1396-1410) who died without a direct heir which gave the institution of The generalist a progressive assumption of powers.
- - At the time Castilian troops were battling in Valencia against the supporters of Jaume d'Urgell, the Castilians won.
- In 1412 the city of Caspe (Aragon) the successor to the throne was decided: Fernando de Antequera.
Jaume d'Urgell called "the unfortunate" called it an unfair decision raised his troops against Greenland and was defeated and imprisoned for the remainder of his life.
- - Catalan Language became fully developed in the 13th century
- Early Catalan poets used Occitan until the second half of the 13th century
- Occitan continued to be used for poetry until the 15th century
- The use of occitan was due to the strong relation between the South of France and Catalonia in the beginning.
- From the 13th century onwards prose was written in in Catalan.
Clashes between the spanish monarchy and the catalans broke out the
17th century occasioned by Felipe IV and the count-duke of Olivares.
- King Felipe wanted to conform all the different parts of Spain to the style and laws of Castile without any differences.
- while Castile was at war against France where Castilian troops were staying in Catalan homes where they inflicted many terrible abbuses aggravating the tense situation between Catalonia and the monarchy that was to culminate in a war for a complete separation from Castile.
- the president of the Generalitat negotiated with Louis XIII of France and Cardinal Richelieu. through his proposal Catalonia became a Republic under the protection of the French and at war against Castile for 12 years " the Guerra del Segadors or war of the reapers"
- - Catalonia is the pioneering force of the Spanish agricultural industry, although its population is basically urban.
- It includes fruits, wine making, grains and typical Mediterranean crops; it has livestock and a prosperous fishing industry as well.
- - 1490 Valencia Joanot Martorell wrote Tirant lo Blanc
uses a real world setting, (England, Sicily, North Africa, Constatinople) most valuable document of its time
- highlights the ideals and sense of humour of the period
- book of order of knighthood by Ramon Llull and Chronicle of Muntaner influenced the novel
- died before completed and Marti Joan de Galba finished it
- vitality of scenes and characters variety of situations and rich style
- plot of the novel, the life of Tirant, a human hero incorporates chivalrous deeds, battles, love & eroticism.
- considered by some critics as the best novel ever written in any language.
- - Barcelona was attacked by Bourbonic troops of France and Castile they were bombed.
- Rafael Casanova (head councillor) organized the resistance Barcelona resisted bombs, sickness hunger.
- 13 months later Sept 11 1714 the Bourbon army broke Barcelona's wall but vitalness kept fighting the same day Barcelona capitulated after one of the most heroic defences in history.
and also Sicily and the duchys of Athens and Neopatria by the marriage
of his grandson with the queen of Sicily. Montpellier went to France and
Athens and Neopatria were lost after his death.
- During his time the School of Cartography located in Majorca made a name for itself with the masterpiece of medieval map-making called Atlas Catala.
- During his reign Les corts assumed their definitive structure and created the Generalitat.
- According to Pierre Vilar (historian 20th century) Catalonia at the time of Pere II became the only country in Europe which could be called a Nation-Stat
In Valencia the Bourbon Army defeated the allies army at the fierce
battle of Almansa in 1707, Immediately Philip deprived Aragon and
Valencia of its freedom and rights.
- when Austrian emperor died Archduke Charles (successor) decided it was beter to be emperor of Austria than king of spain.
- 1713 European countries signed the treaty of Utrecht in which hostilities ceased and Philip became king of Spain as Felipe V.
- The treaty of Utrecht allowed the Catalans to keep their freedoms but Felipe did not respect that, Felipe V abandoned Catalonia even as Queen of England tried to intervene.
- The Països Catalans,/ Catalan Countries, are the territories where Catalan language is spoken.
- They include the territories of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Valencia, La Franja, Carxe, Northern Catalonia, Alghero and Andorra.
- - 1st important count of the Marca, count of Barcelona,
- He also repopulated central Catalonia, rebuild the cathedral of Vic, and re-established the bishopric of Vic.
the church was reorganized in the Marca Hispànica
- During his rule the Church was reorganized in the Catalan counties.
- Wilfred the Hairy united under one rule the counties of Barcelona, Osona and Girona.
- He founded two important monasteries:
Santa Maria de Ripoll
Sant Joan de les Abadesses.
The Diari Catala was the first newspaper in Catalan which paid special
attention to regional news and took the role of mouthpiece of the
By the end of the 19th century Catalan literature was totally reinstated.
- Catalanisme - was the political movement who aimed to teach catalan in schools and have Catalan with the status of official language.
- 1891 - Catalanist Union was formed was a confederation of Catalans centres and became the cradle for all the future political organizations in Catalonia.
Bases de Manresa which was the first statute of autonomy for Catalonia: Catalan language for Catalonia and restoring a form of self-government.
- - Later Successor of King Alfons Ferran II (1479-1516)
married the queen of Castile Isabel.
- named the catholic kings marriage had important political consequences beginning a union of castile with the catalan-aragonese Kingdom
- Marriage had a special consequence for Catalonia : the supremacy for Castile and a progressive decline of Catalan autonomy.
- frontier territory
- - A great development of Romanesque art took place in Catalonia in the 10th & 13th centuries.
- Most of its art can be found in monasteries and churches the use of stone vaults was the great technical innovation of Romanesque architecture.
it is based on roman architecture with influence from Byzantium in its paintings.
- - Catalan Counties of the Marca Hispànica were not independent, they were vassals of the Carolingian emperor. (Franks)
- After the partition of the Empire (843), the catalan counts became vassals of the king of West France.
- If Catalonia depended on France in the political & cultural spheres, economically it maintained close ties without he Muslims.
- The structure of Frankish society was adopted and developed in ways peculiar to Catalonia during the 9th & 10th centuries.
1653 the Catalans, disenchanted with the French and returned their
allegiance to Felipe IV on the condition that their freedoms remained
untouched but 6 years later through the Treaty of the Pyrenees which put
an end to the war between France and Spain Felipe IV gave up power to
Louis XIV of France the Catalan territories north of the Pyrenees.
- The Catalan institutions linked to the Generalitat were then abolished in what is currently known as Northern Catalonia.
A later successor of Ferdinand I, Fedinand II (1479-1516), married the
queen of Castile, Isabel. They were named the Catholic Kings.
-Each kingdom (Catalonia-Aragon, and Castile) had its own king or queen, its own laws, parliament, monetary system, institutions and language.
-After the Catholic Kings, the nations in the Iberian Peninsula had a common king, though Catalonia still maintained a self-government with the Generalitat. The Spanish kings belonged to the Austrian dynasty of the Habsburg.
9th, 10th 11th centuries Latin was used for documents and writing
though it was common to find sentences and whole paragraphs in Catalan.
- 12th century the first full texts written entirely in Catalan appear in the catalan version of the Forum Iudicum and Homilies d'Organya
Peninsula, peninsula in southwestern Europe, occupied by Spain and
Portugals located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes
modern-day states Portugal, Spain, Andorra, the British Overseas
Territory of Gibraltar and a very small area of France
Alfons died soon after conquering Menorca & his brother James left
Sicily to become King Jaume II (1291-1327) while another brother
Frederic took over Sicily.
- Both brothers (Jaume & Frederic) fought over Sicily then finally signed the Peace of Caltabellotta with the Pope (1302) in which Sicily became independent, & Frederic becoming King by the request of citizens.
- Due to this treaty Jaume II had Sardinia and Corsica, Majorca continued under Jaume, uncle of Jaume II and Frederic.
- - bishop of Vic and founder of the monastery of Montserrat
- great translator of Arabic works into latin
known for establishing the "peace and truce of god" which was accepted in Europe it forced periods of intermission in the private wars and claimed the rights of fugitives from violence by nobles.
- - The church was important for saving the arts and sciences.
- Monasteries became the cultural centres of the time.
- The monks were the only ones that could write & read; they studied medicine languages and sciences.
- - Count of Barcelona
- fought the Moors who were trying to invade Catalonia.
1118 he had reconqured and rebuilt Tarragona which became the archbishopric of Catalonia.
- created a political link with Provence by marrying the heiress of Provence and becoming count of his land.
- -Started in the 9th century became important during the 10th, 11th & 12th centuries.
- land is given to a vassal by a feudal lord in exchange for fidelity and services.
- The lord gives protection to the vassal
it is a pyramidical system the top which is the king & three groups of the feudal system: nobles, citizens, and serfs
The main pretenders to the throne were Jaume d'Urgell , great grandon
of Jaume II and Fernando de Antequera from the dynasty of the
- Fernando had the Castilian army at his disposal and moved the troops to Aragon and Valencia as a threat.
The election was complicated by various battles and interests.
- The result of these conflicts was that the supporters of Fernando informed the Catalan Parliament if they did not comply with their choice of successor it would break the relations which will result in a civil war and a war with Castile.
- - Son of Ramon Bringer III
- reconquered Lleida and Tortoise from the Moors, increasing his territories.
- Married the daughter of the king of Aragon resulting in these two territories uniting.
- the counts of Catalan dynasty also became kings of Aragon and formed a Catalan-Aragonese Confederation.
During the 13th & 14th centuries several great works of literature
appeared: the four chronicles, works of philosophy written by Jewish
writers from Barcelona, and specially the works of the great writer and
Ramon Llull (1232-1315).
- Also some important non-literary texts were written: Laws of Valencia, Consolat de mar and the catalan version of Usatges.
- Consolat of the Sea/Consolat De mar : a maritime and commercial law compilation started in the 13th century completed in 14th became an international law in the Mediterranean served as a basis for european maritime law.
- 8th century
- - 1st: Cronica de Jaume I - deals with the reign of King Jaume I the Conqueror.
- 2nd: Cronica de Desclot - deals with the reign of King Pere II the great, son and successor of Jaime I.
- 3rd: Cronica de Muntaner- most valuable of the four, deals with the expedition to the eastern mediterranean with Roger de Flor and the almogavers.
- 4th - was promoted by Pere III inspired by the first chronicle of his ancestor.
- Catalonia, with its capital city Barcelona, is an Autonomous Community inside the Spanish State.
- Although Spain divides Catalonia into four provinces, the Catalan jurisdiction keeps its own historical territorial division based on counties
- - Prolific poet, prose writer and Philosopher
- wrote more than 200 books in Catalan, Latin, & Arabic
translated many of his books into the other two languages.
- wrote poetry, stories, philosophy, theology, logic and natural science.
- Was the first european to use catalan and the first
- Catalan writer to use Catalan as the main language to write. which resulted in Catalan becoming a language adequate for scientific expression.
- Attacked & imprisoned in North Africa
Shipwrecked on his way home.
The aristocracy was attracted to the spanish court and the middle class
was organized into guilds but the conditions of the rural population
was harsh, the highwaymen abounded piracy was a constant threat and
plagues cut down the population.
- The general decline had profound repercussions in Catalan literature.
- Banditry was a social phenomenon in the creation of armed bands with attacked individuals and property to help the poorer sectors of society, it expressed the economic and social unrest of the time.
- Serrallonga was a famous Catalan Bandit
- - inherited the county of Barcelona (already united w Osona & Girona) and the county of Urgell.
- While the Catalan counties of the Marca were in-between two great powers: France (politically dependent on) and the Muslim Caliphate of Cordoba. Borrell maintained good commercial & cultural relations with both.
- Borrell II was defeated by the vizier of Cordoba who raided and partly destroyed Barcelona (985) in his war expeditions against the Christian kingdoms of the Peninsula.
- Due to the king of France reluctance to help Borrell in 988 he refused to recognize the French King.
- Under Borrell's rule was the beginning of Catalan political independence, 1998 was celebrated as the millenium of Catalonia.
- - Son of Jaume I
- Pere married the daughter of the king of Sicily
- Pere II encouraged the rebellion of the people of Sicily against the french after Charles d'anjou (brother of King of France) had killed the king of sicily.
- Pere II was asked by the Sicilians for help after Charles d'Anjou prepared to conquer Sicily who then defeated the French at the naval battle of Nicotena. The Sicilians took Pere as their king.
- From that time forward Catalonia began to establish itself as the major Mediterranean power. These events are narrated in the Chronicle of Desclot.
- - Felipe V took revenge against Catalonia with the Decree of New plan (1716)
- Catalonia institutions including the generalitat , les courts and the counsel of the hundreds were wrapped out
- unis closed & catalan language forbidden
- leaders of resistance were imprisoned or killed
autonomy in catalonia had ceased to exist and the history of modern Spain had started.
- - Catalan inventor and the creator of the first modern submarine in the world.
- The Spanish navy was not interested and Monturiol ended his days as a poor man.
- It seems that his submarine was the inspiration for Jules Verne's Nautilus in his novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
- - middle of the 19th century strong literary movement arose : The Renaixenca (to be born again)
- The Renaixença is the recuperation of Catalan as a literary language started with the renewal of the Jocs Florals (poetry contest).
- After 2 centuries of neglect, spelling syntax the lexicon lapsed into anarchy various authors attempted to remedy the situation.
- Most important literary figure poet Janice Verdaguer gave Catalan language the drive it needed to return to its former splendour. He caused Catalan to elevate to the level of literary language with his two epic poems L'Atlantida and Canigo.
- -Count of Barcelona
- created a written code of Catalan law that regulated the administration of the justice (including the throne, the nobles, the citizens and the peasants).
- Produced the first known legal code of feudalism (Usatges)
- El Usatges included laws for or taxation, crimes, rights & obligations for both lords & vassals.
- increased Barcelona's territory by campaigning against taifa kingdoms and imposing heavy tributes on Moorish cities which resulted in permitting him to acquire the counties of Carcassonne and Rases in Occitania (southern half of France).
- Germanic tribes
- - formed from spoken Latin
- very close to Occitan
- the expansion of the Catalan people toward the south brought with it the spread of their language.
Industry is the most important element of the economy of Catalonia with
the production of textiles, construction materials and the
- Traditionally Catalonia has always been a centre of commerce.
- Tourism is another important source of its economy. Its capital Barcelona, one of the major ports in the
- Mediterranean, is also an important financial and publishing center in Europe.
- Northern Catalonia has belonged to France since the 17th century.
-The city of Alghero in the island of Sardinia, is part of Italy.
Andorra is an independent country situated in the Pyrenees mountains, between France and the Iberian Peninsula.
After the Catholic Kings the spanish nations had a common king, though
Catalonia still maintained a form of self-government with the
- The spanish kings belonged to the Germanic dynasty of the Habsburg.
- During the 16th & 17th centuries, Castile, suppressed minorities and warred against those who threatened its empire or faith.
- Catalonia experienced a period of general decline though the economy recovered to some degree.
- - After the defeat Catalonia focused on its economy
between 1725 & 1787 catalonia doubled it population and there was increase in agriculture and commerce
at the end of the 18th century Catalans were for the first time permitted to go to Spanish America.
- Catalonia became an industrialized region until more than a 100 years later.
- a territory North South of Pyrenees
- - After treaty of Utrecht the Balearic island of Minorca was given to England which ruled it from 1713-1781 and 1798-1802.
- English encouraged both the Catalan language and culture
- 1763-81 numerous colony of Minorcans was established in Florida then under the British rule for a century and a half they spoke Catalan.
Catalan is the only official language in Andorra, and it has official
status, along with Castilian in Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic
- The Catalan language shares many features with French and it is very close to Occitan.
- The Catalan language was formed between the 8th and the 10th centuries in the Frankish counties that formed the Marca Hispànica after the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula.