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  • Acronym

    Sounds like one word, e.g. RADAR.

    Addition

    This is a minor phonological error; the child adds a vowel to make final position easier, e.g. dog-dogu.

    Adverbial (clause elements)

    Adds more information to the situation: how, why, when?

    Affricatives

    Plosives and fricatives, e.g. d, g and ch.

    Affixes(bound morphemes)

    They are bound morphemes, they require free morphemes. Affixes are usually the grammatical morphemes.

    Assimilation

    This is a minor phonological error; consonant final influences consonant initial, e.g. tub-bub.

    Aitchinson

    She linked lexical and semantic development:1. Labelling-labelling words to objects. 2. Packaging-linking words to other applications: over/under extension. 3. Network building-making connections between words using similarities and differences.

    Amelioration

    A word takes on a different, more positive meaning, therefore gaining status. E.g.pretty:sly-attractive.

    Approximants

    Similar to vowels; air flow goes through the mouth, e.g. w, r and j.

    Archaism

    This is an old word/phase which is no longer in general spoken or written use.

    Babbling

    Consonant-vowel repeated patterns.

    Back formation

    The removal of an imagined affix on an existing word, e.g. editor-edit.

    Blend

    Making new words by combining two words that keep the meaning. E.g. motel: motorway and hotel.

    Borrowing/loaning words

    This is the introduction of a word from one language to another, e.g. chocolat(e).

    (Roger) Brown

    This is part of meaning relations in two word stage. Agent and action: someone performed an action. Agent and affected: someone did something to an object, Entity and attribute: a person/object described. Action and affected: action affects object. Action and location: action occurs in a place. Entity and location: object located. Possessor and possession: object possessed. Nomination: person/object labelled. Recurrence: event repeated. Negation: something removed.

    Chomsky

    Chomsky believed in the brain there was an innate mechanism that had the ability to acquire grammatical structures (Language Acquisition Device). Human languages share many similarities; known as universal grammar.

    Cliché

    Idiom is regularly used.

    (Eve) Clark

    She believes that overextension is more common as children base their overextensions on: physical qualities, features or experiences.

    Clipping

    A new word created by shortening an existing one, e.g. phone.

    Consonant cluster reduction

    This is a major phonological error; it is where a child reduces a consonant, e.g. green-geen.

    Complement (clause elements)

    Gives additional information that can't be removed.

    Compound

    The combining of separate words to create a new word, they can use a hyphen. E.g. man flu.

    Cooing

    Open mouthed vowel sounds.

    Deletion

    This is a major phonological error; the child drops a consonant, e.g. dog-do.

    Derivational morphological change

    Making new words from old ones and adding to existing words.

    Diminutive suffix

    This is used to soften the meaning of the lexis, e.g. 'wifey'

    Eponym

    Name of a person after whom something is named, e.g. (Mr) Dyson.

    Euphemism

    A way of describing something in a more pleasant manner, e.g. passed away.

    Fis phenomenon

    This is the theory conveyed by Berko and Brown, this usually occurs at 12 months as children understand more words than they can produce. This is because of their restrictions in development.

    Free morphemes

    This type of morpheme is found in the dictionary, they usually are semantic morphemes. They do not require an additional morpheme.

    Fricatives

    Airflow is partially blocked and air moves through the mouth, e.g. v, z, f and s.

    Grammatical conversion

    Changing the word class, e.g. a text to text.

    Holophrase

    Single word expressing a whole idea. Types of holophrases include declarative, interrogative or exclamative.

    Holophrastic

    One word combinations. The one word acts in a variety of ways: question, noun and verb.

    Idiom

    Expression that can't be understood literally from the meanings of the individual words, e.g. bull in a china shop.

    Inflectional morphological change

    New grammatical forms are made.

    Initialism

    Sounded as the initials of the word, e.g. BBC.

    Intonation

    Rise at the end of a sentence.

    Laterals

    Placing the tongue on the ridge of the teeth and air moving through the mouth.

    Mean letter utterance

    This is important because it works out the amount of morphemes and depending on the length of utterance, it doesn't tend to be more grammatically developed.

    Metaphor

    Acquires new meaning because it is used metaphorically.

    Morpheme

    Unit of meaning; there are different types of morphemes: grammatical morphemes change the word class, i.e. by adding 'ing'- doing something and semantic morphemes carry the meaning, it can change it. An example is 'dogging', the morpheme 'dog' carries the meaning of a four legged canine.

    Nelson

    This is a theorist who investigated the first fifty words: naming words (60% of sample), actions/events (2nd largest group), modifiers and personal/social words (8% of sample). First words are often proper or concrete nouns (also known as content words); it appears children find it easy to link a word to a referent. Naming words are encountered on a daily basis. (Piaget's cognitive development link). Modifiers (also referred to as function words) are not necessary as grammar development is more difficult. The social and interactive nature of the first 50 words suggest the importance of interacting with others. (Social interactionist theory link).

    Neologism/coinage

    This is the creation of a new word.

    Non-verbal communication

    This includes paralinguistic features.

    Obsolete

    This word no longer has any use, e.g. thy.

    Narrowing

    A word becomes more specific in its meaning, e.g. wife: any women-married women.

    Nasals

    Sounds created by air through the nose, e.g. m and n.

    Object (clause elements)

    Affected by the subject.

    Overextension

    Overextends meaning to other objects in similar. Overextension is more common, children base their understandings on: physical qualities of objects, features such as taste/sound/movement/shape/size or texture. E.g. calling a cat a dog.

    Pejoration

    A word takes on a different and more negative meaning, so losing status. E.g. idiot: widely known-infamous.

    Phoneme

    Unit of sound, e.g. 'ch'.

    Piaget

    Children are active learners who use their environment and social interactions to shape their language. Piaget outlined four stages of linguistic development: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational.

    Post-telegraphic

    Grammatically complex combinations.

    Prefix

    This goes at the front of lexis, e.g. 'supermodel'.

    Proprietary names

    Name given to a product by an organisation, e.g. Hoover and Tampax.

    Proto-words

    Word-like vocalisations.

    Reduplification

    Repeated phoneme, e.g. moo moo.

    Register

    This is also known as formality. Knowing the appropriate register of a situation will allow you to understand the implied reader and the purpose.

    (Leslie) Rescorla

    She classified the types of overextension into: a. Categorical (categories) b. Analogical (physical features/function) c. Mismatch statements (abstract)

    Social interactionists

    These are theorists who follow on from the behaviourist's idea that language is acquired from the environment, however, they believe that it is important interaction between people and environment, e.g. through the use of games.

    Stress

    Emphasis on certain lexis.

    Subject (clause elements)

    Topic of the clause.

    Substitution

    This is a major phonological error; you replaces a consonant, e.g. dog-dod.

    Suffix

    This goes at the end of lexis, e.g. 'hyperactive'.

    Telegraphic

    Three or more word combinations.

    Two words

    Two word combinations.

    Underextension

    Underspecifies the meaning associated with an object, e.g. calling a rubber duck a duck but not a duck in a pond.

    Vegetative

    Discomfort sounds and reflexive actions.

    Verb (clause elements)

    Necessary; includes actions and states of being.

    Weakening

    A word loses the strength of its meaning, e.g. soon: immediately-short while.

    Berko

    Overgeneralisations was proven by Jean Berko who conducted a study into children's pronunciation by adding the -s plural. She gave children a picture of an imaginary creature called a wug. ¾ of 4-5 year olds formed the regular plural.

    Copula verb

    E.g. be and is.

    Covert prestige

    In touch with society to make links and connections.

    Deixis

    Pointing words.

    Dore

    Dore's function of speech is broader and contextually based. The functions include: labelling (naming), repeating, answering, requesting action, calling (getting attention), greeting, protesting (objecting others) and practising (using language when no adult is present).

    Functions of formality

    This is used to create and maintain a professional distance.

    Functions of informality

    This is to build and maintain social bonds/relationships to present yourself as more accessible to others of an equal status.

    ſ

    This is the long s that was used upon until the 19th century.

    Morphological development

    Present tense progressive -ing
    Prepositions in, on
    Plural -s
    Past tense irregular run/ran
    Possessive -'s
    Uncontractible copula is/was
    Articles the/.a
    Past tense regular -ed
    Third person regular runs
    Uncontractible auxiliary were

    Orthography

    This is the study of letters and the rules of spelling in a language.

    Overgeneralisations

    A learner's extension of a word's meaning or grammatical rule beyond its normal use. E.g. mouses.

    Phoneme contraction

    This is the decreased use of phonemes in the babbling stage; this is when people of different languages sound differently.

    Phoneme expansion

    This is the increased use of phonemes in the babbling stage.

    (Catherine) Garvey

    She investigated play and language acquisition and found children adopt roles and identities as required in a role-play scenario. She said this fulfils Halliday's imaginative function and children also practice social interactions and negotiation skills- this is known as sociodramatic play.

    (Robin) Lakoff

    (Robin) Lakoff (SA) Her theory is to be polite:
    1. Don't impose
    2. Give options
    3. Make others feel good

    Negation

    Describe something as not.

    Negatives

    1. Use of no or not at the beginning/end of a sentence.
    2. The no inside the sentence.
    3. Attaches the negative to the copula verb.

    Pronouns

    Pronouns express the person involved, object positioning, number, gender and possession. Bellugi formed a three stage theory.
    1. Use own name.
    2. Pronouns in different parts of the sentence.
    3. Subject or object position within the sentence.

    Questions

    In the one and two word stage, questions are formed as a result of rising intonation. The order of questions learnt are what (classifying objects), where (object permenance), why (abstract reasoning) and when (concrete/temporal events). Yes/no interrogatives are easier than wh-questions.

    Sociodramatic play

    This involves both social and dramatic skills, this begins at the age of 4 years and this is linked to their cognitive understanding and their re-enactments often use field-specific lexis and often imitate adult behaviour.

    (Lee) Vygotsky

    He observed children's play and linked this to both cognitive and social development. Young children use props as pivots to support the play, whereas, older children use their imagination.

    Prestige forms

    Well established forms associated with powerful figures.

    Stigmatised forms

    Use of forms that are non-standard.

    Virtuous errors

    Syntactic errors made by young children in which the non-standard utterance reveals some understanding through incomplete, of standard lexis. E.g. I runned/ I ran

    Analytic phonics

    They run along reading scheme books which is a methodological approach. However, you can't apply the sounds to all texts given and it is a long time to memorise.

    Baby and toddler reading books

    They are read to children to aid them with their speech development. It assists Jean Aitchinson's linking lexical and semantic development through labelling, packaging and network building.

    Brumer's LASS

    1. Gaining attention-getting the baby's attention to look at the picture. 2.Query-asking the baby what the object in the picture is. 3.Labelling-telling the baby what the object in the picture is. 4.Feedback-responding to the baby's utterance. Vygotsky believed that children cannot learn automatically, they need to learn when they're ready.

    Chall's stages of reading development

    Stage zero is pre-reading and pseudo-reading (-6 years) with letter and word recognition, predict single words and 'pretend reading'-looking at texts they have previously read. Stage one is initial reading and decoding (6-7 years) with high frequency lexis, vocabulary size is 600 and there is a link between phonemes and graphemes. Stage two is confirmation and frequency (7-8 years) where they are able to read accurately, fluently and the vocabulary size is 6000. Stage three is reading for learning (9-14 years) where reading is focused on gaining knowledge. Stage four is multiplicity and complexity is where the reader is able to respond critically and analytically at texts. Stage five is reconstruction and construction where reading selectively occurs to form opinions.

    Contextual reading cues

    This is searching for understanding in the situation of the story -comparing it to their own experience of their pragmatic understanding of social conventions.

    Graphonic reading cues

    This is looking at the shape of words, linking to similar graphemes/words to interpret them.

    Heath

    They conducted a study and found early reading is shaped by community and home, reading is developed as a result of childhood experiences. Heath studied three American communities: two are working class and one is middle class. The working class' teaching strategies are orally focused on singing and storytelling. The middle class' teaching strategies are focused on sharing and reading books with parents.

    Miscue reading cues

    This is making errors when reading: a child might miss a word, or substitute another that looks similar, or guess a word by accompanying pictures.

    Semantic reading cues

    This is the understanding of the meaning of words and making connections between words and making connections between words in order to decode them.

    Synthetic phonics

    It is possible to memorise quickly, you have to learn the underlying principles and it can be a multi-sensory approach.

    Visual reading cues

    This is looking at the pictures and using the visual narrative to interpret unfamiliar words or ideas.

    Emergent writing

    This is early scribble writing.

    Ascender

    The typological feature where a portion of the letter goes above the usual height of the font.

    Descender

    The typological feature where a portion of the letter goes below the baseline of the font.

    Kroll's stages of writing

    1. Preparation (-6 years old): basic motor skills with some principles of spelling.
    2.Consolidation (7/8): writing is similar to spoken language and this is shown through unfinished sentences and strings of clauses using 'and'.
    3.Differentiation (9/10): awareness that writing is separate from speech. Writing is available for different audiences and purposes.
    4.Integration (mid-teens): this is where the personal voice is acquired and this is characterised by the controlled writing and appropriate linguistic choices.

    Sound clues

    This is breaking the word down to syllables.

    Digraph

    This is two graphemes representing a sound.

    Stages of spelling

    1. Pre-phonemic: imitating through pretend writing and deciphering shapes.
    2.Semi-phonic: this is where you begin to link phonemes to graphemes.
    3.Phonetic: full understanding of phonemes to graphemes.
    4.Transitional: phonetic awareness to visual memory
    5. Conventional: clear grasp of spelling rules.

    Insertion (spelling error)

    Adding an extra letter, e.g. 'catt'.

    Omission (spelling errors)

    Leaving out any letters, e.g. 'suddnly'.

    Substitution (spelling errors)

    Substituting a letter, e.g. 'discusting'.

    Transposition (spelling errors)

    Reversing the order of letters, e.g. 'becuase'.

    Phonetic spelling (spelling errors)

    Using sound awareness to guess letters, e.g. 'correg'.

    Over/under generalisation of spelling rules

    This is using virtuous errors; link to Chomsky.

    Salient (key) sounds

    This is writing only the key sounds, e.g. 'expensis',

    Cruttenden

    He investigated if young children could understand varying intonation. He compared adults and children to see if they could predict football results from listening to the scores. He found adults successfully predicted winners by the intonation on the first team but children (-7 years) were less accurate.

    Clark

    Clark found common adjectives (e.g. nice and big) were developed in the first 50 words. Spatial adjectives were developed later (e.g. wide and narrow). This is because of cognitive development and their awareness of space.

    Changing capitalisation

    In Early Modern English, capital letters were used to the same as they are now: at the beginning of every sentence and every proper name. They were also used rhetorically for any personified and abstract nouns. They could have been used anywhere where the writer thought it was important.

    Contractions

    In Late Modern English, they didn't contract words.

    Conversationalisation

    This was introduced by Norman Fairclough; it is used in language produced to the public which has features of informal, conversational language.

    Crumbling castle view

    This was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson, John Simpson believed that language should be preserved like a stately home or a castle. Simpson believes that language is decaying (crumbling).Aitchinson disagrees with this because you can't find the peak of language- it is subjective.

    Damp spoon syndrome

    This was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson and this metaphor was suggested by Max Miller as he believed that language change is lazy. This metaphor is similar to leaving a wet spoon in the sugar. Aitchinson disagrees with this and believes the only lazy language is alcohol because of the difficulty in articulation.

    Diachronic change

    This refers to the study of historical language change occurring over a span of time.

    Divergence and convergence

    This was introduced by Giles; convergence is when the speaker/writer tries to match the language of a particular group. Divergence, however, is when the speaker/writer adjusts their language to be distinct from a particular group.

    Dummy auxiliary

    The verb 'do' which is used to form questions and negatives in early Late Modern English.

    Emoticons

    This is the online communication of showing facial expressions and gestures.

    Eye dialect

    This is a way of spelling words that suggests a regional or social way of talking.

    Globalisation (context)

    This has affected language because English has become a global language as a result of technology and American English.

    Incorrectness, ugliness and impreciseness views

    Freeborn disagreed with the 'incorrectness view' as he said language became standard for being more prestige, not more correct. He suggested the 'ugliness view' as some accents sound harsh and there are often negative social connotations to some areas. Freeborn suggested the 'impreciseness view' because he believed some accents were lazy.

    Infectious disease assumption

    This was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson, it is the idea that you can catch language change and this view suggests that this is a bad thing; you need to be able to fight it. This occurs as you adapt to fit into social groups.

    Informalisation

    This is the way in which language is becoming increasingly informal in all areas of society.

    Lexicon

    The vocabulary of a language.

    Migration (context)

    This has affected language because when people move to different parts of the world, they take their language and culture with them.

    Negation

    Constructing a negative in the 18th century was not the same as it is now through the use of the dummy auxiliary verb: 'do'. They were used at the beginning or the end of the clause.

    Overt prestige

    This refers to the status speakers/writers get from using the most official and standard form of a language. Received Pronunciation and Standard English are the most prestigious of English Language.

    Political correctness

    They are words or phrases used to replace those that are deemed offensive.

    Prepositions

    In Late Modern English, they used different types of prepositions.

    Pronouns

    They usually referred to themselves as 'one' in early Late Modern English.

    Received Pronunciation

    This is the prestigious form of English pronunciation.

    Science and medicine (context)

    This has affected language especially since the 18th and 19th century as a result of advances which resulted in neologisms. As a result of the academic prestige associated with Latin and Greek, much of the lexis was formed using these languages.

    Social, ideological and cultural changes (context)

    Changes in attitude affect language because of the different views held by the writer/speaker. As views have changed, we have tried to be politically correct in order to prevent discrimination against sex, race and gender.

    Synchronic change

    This refers to the approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the historical context.

    Syntax

    The syntax (word order) has changed, e.g. the complement of the clause coming before the main subject verb or the adverb after the verb.

    Synthetic personalisation

    This was introduced by Norman Fairclough, it is the process of addressing mass audiences as if they were individuals and this is usually through the first person, plural pronoun 'we'.

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