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  • Parts of speech

    Noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, interjection, preposition, conjunction (Coordinate and Subordinate)


    A person, place, thing, or idea


    A word that replaces a noun


    A word that expresses action, a state of being or feeling, or a relation between two things


    Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb.


    Modify nouns or pronouns


    Joins words, phrases, and clauses.

    Coordinate conjuction

    Used to join element that gives equal weight; 7 types (and, but, or, nor, so, for, or yet )

    Subordinate conjuction

    A conjunction that makes an independent (main) clause into a dependent (subordinate) clause.


    Connects its noun or pronoun another word in the sentence and always exists in a prepositional phrase


    A word that expresses emotion

    Noun Functions

    Subject, Appositive, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Predicate Noun, Object of the preposition, Retained Object




    A noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it

    Predicate Noun

    Follows a linking verb and defines or renames the subject

    Direct Object

    Receives action of verb

    Indirect Object

    Answers "to whom" or "for whom" after the verb

    Object of the preposition

    The noun or pronoun that ends the prepositional phrase

    Retained Object

    A noun or pronoun that follows an action verb in the passive voice

    Types of verbs

    Transitive Active, Intrasitive Active, Linking, Passive

    Transitive Active

    The receiver of the action is a direct object

    Intrasitive Active

    The action remains within the verb

    Linking Verb

    The verb links the subject to the subjective complement, which either renames Predicate Noun or characterizes Predicate Adjetive.

    Passive Verb

    Linking Verb and Past Participle


    Gerund, Participles (Past & Present), Infinitive


    A form regularly derived from a verb and functioning as a noun.


    Functions as an adjetive or part of a verb phrase.

    Past Participle

    A past participle is a VERB + -ED used as an adjective or a verb.

    Present Participle

    A present participle is a Verb plus 'ing' used as an adjective or a verb.


    Formed sith "to" and the regular form of the verb.

    Levels of Grammar

    Words, Phrases, Clauses




    Group of related words.

    Adjetive Phrases

    Includes Noun, Adjetive, and Adverb


    Group of related words that has a subject snd a verb. A sentence must have at least one main clause, which makes sense by itself. A depender clause cannot stand by itself. It has a Subordinate Conjuction if it functions adverbially. It has a Relative Pronoun if it functions Adjectivally or Nominally

    How to attack the sentence

    1. Look for the Subject
    2. Look for the verb
    3. Determine which kind of verb
    4. Finds the objects or subjective complements
    5. Identify the modifiers or apposities, wheter wods, phrases, or clauses

    1. Look for the Subject

    The subject is usually one word, but it could be a Gerund Phrase, an Infinitive Phrase, or a Noun Clause

    2. Look for the verb

    Essential step indicates the existence of a clause, so verify that this group of words can stand by itself.

    3. Determine which kind of verb


    4. Finds the objects or subjective complements


    5. Identify the modifiers or apposities, wheter wods, phrases, or clauses


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