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  • Neologism

    Neologisms are new words, invented by social or cultural groups.


    A cliché can be a recognizable word, phrase or a concept that has been used so often that it has lost its impact.


    Idioms are figurative phrases that are commonly used.


    Where an entire story is representative/symbolic of something else, usually a larger abstract concept or important historical/geopolitical event (e.g. Animal Farm is an allegory of Soviet totalitarianism).


    Where animals or inanimate objects are portrayed as people. (e.g. in Animal Farm the animals can talk, walk, and interact like humans).


    When an author interrupts a story in order to explain something


    Where future events in a story, or perhaps the outcome, are suggested by the author before they happen


    The use of similar or identical language, structures, events or ideas in different parts of a text.


    Acceptable/mild expression for something not very nice eg. Instead of died, passed away


    two words placed next to each other to show contrast


    Resolution of plot or play


    Concise statement that contains a cleverly stated truth or fact.


    The flaws of a tragic hero that leads to their downfall.


    Gradually exposing background facts about the story's world.


    Using two aspects, such as characters, words or situations to form a contrast.


    A phrase that describes an idea composed of concepts that conflict.


    When sentences do not use conjunctions (e.g.: and, or, nor) to separate clauses e.g "that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe"


    To use emotion as a persuasive device


    the use of several conjunctions in close succession, this provides a sense of exaggeration e.g "he was burnt, and cut, and whipped, and tortured"


    The use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices.


    A type of novel concerned with education, development, and maturation of a young protagonist.


    Novel in the form of a series of documents (letters, e-mails, etc.) exchanged between characters.


    The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs.


    Inversion of the normal syntactic order of words e.g To market went she


    Idea that physical entities (plants, animals, etc) have a spiritual essence


    harsh, discordant sounds. E.g My stick fingers click with a snicker
    And, chuckling, they knuckle the keys


    A type of rhetoric in which the second part is syntactically balanced against the first e.g flowers are lovely, love is flowerlike


    the choice of language used by the speaker or writer


    A fictional story that features animals, mythical creatures, plants, inanimate objects or forces of nature which are anthropomorphized


    an act or habit of misusing words ridiculously to create comic relief


    combination of two or more words to create a new word
    e.g smoke + fog = smog


    the shuffling of the first letters of words to make different words e.g rather than "this is a cellular telephone", "this is a tellular cellephone".


    Monologue spoken by a character direct to the audience


    A brief interruption in a dialogue, where the character shares their thought with the audience but no other character can hear it


    Using your position to persuade


    Using facts/ plan to logic to persuade


    Two contrasting things next to each other e.g 'to be or not to be'

    Objective Correlative

    A symbol that parallels a person's experience with their physical environment e.g messy room = messy mind


    is when one uses a part to represent the whole e.g lend me your ears (give me your attention)


    the way in which linguistic elements (words) are put together to form constituents (phrases)


    a long speech by one character that others can hear


    giving orders

    Truncated Sentences

    a sentence that is interrupted or a short sentence that isn't complete

    Pathetic Fallacy

    the idea that the environment symbolises or parallels the mood/situation of the person


    opposite of metaphor e.g compare animal to a person rather than person to animal


    small story represents a larger meaning e.g Little Red Riding Hood warns to not speak to strangers

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