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  • Neologism

    Neologisms are new words, invented by social or cultural groups.

    Cliché

    A cliché can be a recognizable word, phrase or a concept that has been used so often that it has lost its impact.

    Idioms

    Idioms are figurative phrases that are commonly used.

    Allegory

    Where an entire story is representative/symbolic of something else, usually a larger abstract concept or important historical/geopolitical event (e.g. Animal Farm is an allegory of Soviet totalitarianism).

    Anthropomorphism

    Where animals or inanimate objects are portrayed as people. (e.g. in Animal Farm the animals can talk, walk, and interact like humans).

    Exposition

    When an author interrupts a story in order to explain something

    Foreshadowing

    Where future events in a story, or perhaps the outcome, are suggested by the author before they happen

    Parallelism

    The use of similar or identical language, structures, events or ideas in different parts of a text.

    Euphemism

    Acceptable/mild expression for something not very nice eg. Instead of died, passed away

    Oxymoron

    two words placed next to each other to show contrast

    Denouement

    Resolution of plot or play

    Aphorism

    Concise statement that contains a cleverly stated truth or fact.

    Hamartia

    The flaws of a tragic hero that leads to their downfall.

    Incluing

    Gradually exposing background facts about the story's world.

    Juxtaposition

    Using two aspects, such as characters, words or situations to form a contrast.

    Paradox

    A phrase that describes an idea composed of concepts that conflict.

    Asyndeton

    When sentences do not use conjunctions (e.g.: and, or, nor) to separate clauses e.g "that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe"

    Pathos

    To use emotion as a persuasive device

    Polysyndeton

    the use of several conjunctions in close succession, this provides a sense of exaggeration e.g "he was burnt, and cut, and whipped, and tortured"

    Satire

    The use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices.

    Bildungsroman

    A type of novel concerned with education, development, and maturation of a young protagonist.

    Epistolary

    Novel in the form of a series of documents (letters, e-mails, etc.) exchanged between characters.

    Anaphora

    The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs.

    Anastrophe

    Inversion of the normal syntactic order of words e.g To market went she

    Animism

    Idea that physical entities (plants, animals, etc) have a spiritual essence

    Cacophony

    harsh, discordant sounds. E.g My stick fingers click with a snicker
    And, chuckling, they knuckle the keys

    Chiasmus

    A type of rhetoric in which the second part is syntactically balanced against the first e.g flowers are lovely, love is flowerlike

    Diction

    the choice of language used by the speaker or writer

    Fable

    A fictional story that features animals, mythical creatures, plants, inanimate objects or forces of nature which are anthropomorphized

    Malapropism

    an act or habit of misusing words ridiculously to create comic relief

    Portmanteau

    combination of two or more words to create a new word
    e.g smoke + fog = smog

    Spoonerism

    the shuffling of the first letters of words to make different words e.g rather than "this is a cellular telephone", "this is a tellular cellephone".

    Soliloquy

    Monologue spoken by a character direct to the audience

    Aside

    A brief interruption in a dialogue, where the character shares their thought with the audience but no other character can hear it

    Logos

    Using your position to persuade

    Ethos

    Using facts/ plan to logic to persuade

    Diptych

    Two contrasting things next to each other e.g 'to be or not to be'

    Objective Correlative

    A symbol that parallels a person's experience with their physical environment e.g messy room = messy mind

    Synecdoche

    is when one uses a part to represent the whole e.g lend me your ears (give me your attention)

    Syntax

    the way in which linguistic elements (words) are put together to form constituents (phrases)

    Monologue

    a long speech by one character that others can hear

    Imperative

    giving orders

    Truncated Sentences

    a sentence that is interrupted or a short sentence that isn't complete

    Pathetic Fallacy

    the idea that the environment symbolises or parallels the mood/situation of the person

    Metamorphosis

    opposite of metaphor e.g compare animal to a person rather than person to animal

    Allegorical

    small story represents a larger meaning e.g Little Red Riding Hood warns to not speak to strangers

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