an expression in which two words that contradict each other are joined: example: jumbo shrimp
a reference to someone or something that is known from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, science, or some other branch of culture
the writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject of a story, toward a character, or toward the audience (the readers). Can be indicative of the type of voice the speaker might use if reading it aloud; examples: sarcastic, snarly, sentimental, amused, etc.
a group of words with a subject and a verb--as opposed to a phrase which contains only one of the two; example: although I think he's nice.
point of view
the perspective from which a story is told: examples: first person (I), second person (you), third person (he), third person limited, unreliable first person, etc.
lines spoken by a character in an undertone or aloud directly to the audience (assumed not to be heard by other characters)
figures of speech
expressions, such as similes, metaphors, and personifications, that make imaginative, rather than literal, comparisons or associations.
a technique by which a writer addresses an inanimate object, an idea, or a person who is either dead or absent.
a sentence composed of at least two coordinate independent clauses (You'll know them because they are joined by a FANBOYS conjunction or a semicolon.)
a complex sentence in which the main clause comes last and is preceded by the subordinate clause
substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself (as in 'they counted heads')
A character who is in most ways opposite to the main character (protagonist) or one who is nearly the same as the protagonist. The purpose of the foil character is to emphasize the traits of the main character by contrast only
drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect. Tends to be more fully developed than metaphor, with a list of similarities between the two things compared.
belonging to or characteristic of romanticism or the Romantic movement in the arts. Often used to suggest a character is overly emotional and impractical.
the object that receives the direct action of the verb. Example: "ball" in the sentence "I threw the ball."
the object that is the recipient or beneficiary of the action of the verb. Example: "Nate" in the sentence "I threw the ball to Nate."
when what is expected to happen is different from what happens. Example: It rains on your wedding day.
A figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant. Example: Smooth move, Erkle.
final syllable of first word rhymes with final syllable of second word (scald recalled)
latter two syllables of first word rhyme with latter two syllables of second word (ceiling appealing)
thinking inside one's head, records the internal, emotional experience of the character (we call this "soliloquy" in theater)
free indirect style
third-person narration - character's thoughts/expressions are presented in character's voice without having quotation marks or 'he thought'
the mistaken substitution of one word for another word that sounds similar ("The doctor wrote a subscription.")
a sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases (main clause is at the beginning)
repition of internal vowel sounds in near by words thet do not end the same; asleeeeep treeeee
Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words, speeds up flow of sentence. X, Y, Z as opposed to X, Y, and Z.
A literary structure, wherein a patter (ABC...) is repeated, often inversely (...CBA), as a means of showing both the symmetry of a unit and its emphasis--the pivotal fulcrum as its central turning point.
using several conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted (as in 'he ran and jumped and laughed for joy')
a metrical foot with unstressed-unstressed-stressed syllables; examples--very good; unabridged
a metrical foot with stressed-unstressed-unstressed syllables; examples--fluttering, butterfly
a metrical foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable; examples--I think that I shall never see
A metrical food consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed; examples--trochees trip from long to short
A metrical foot represented by two stressed syllables such as knick-knack, hot dog, or hodge-podge
a condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will
created by a subordinating conjunction, a clause that modifies an independent clause
An eponym is a person or thing, whether real or fictitious, after which a particular place, tribe, era, discovery, or other item is named or thought to be named. For example, Léon Theremin is the eponym of the theremin. A synonym of "eponym" is namegiver. One who is referred to as eponymous is someone who is the eponym of something, for example, "Léon Theremin, the eponymous inventor of the theremin".
The major characters in a tragedy are not average. They are heroes, kings, and gods.
The conditions of a protagonist(s) life goes from good to bad.
A "tragic flaw" in the protagonist brings about his (or her) downfall.
The fate of many people is tied to the protagonist, so his or her downfall is a catastrophic event.
The purpose of a tragedy is catharsis, which cleans the soul of "fear and pity" that most people carry within themselves.
The major characters in a comedy are average people.
The conditions of a protagonist(s) life goes from bad to good.
a device used in poetry of the oral tradition, especially English and Scottish ballads, in which a line is repeated in a changed context or with minor changes in the repeated part.
the turn, is the shift or point of dramatic change. The term is most frequently used in discussion of sonnet form, in which the volta marks a shift in thought (often from question to answer or problem to solution). It is most frequently encountered at the end of the octave (first eight lines in Petrarchan or Spenserian sonnets), or the end of the twelfth line in Shakespearean sonnets.