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  1. language used to distort and manipulate rather than to communicate.
    EX: downsize, RIF (reduction in force): fire employees.
  2. the use of language to convey sensory experience, most often through the creation of pictorial images through figurative language.
    EX: "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day."
  3. Words or phrases characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversation.
  4. the substitution of an inoffensive, indirect, or agreeable expression for a word or phrase perceived as socially unacceptable or unnecessarily harsh.
    EX: "overweight" rather than "fat," "disadvantaged" rather than "poor"
  5. The repetition of a constant sound within a series of words to produce a harmonious effect.
    EX: "And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds."
  6. The use of words outside their literal or usual meanings, used to add freshness and suggest associations and comparisons that create effective images.
  7. an elaborate and surprising figure of speech comparing two very dissimilar things.
    EX: In John Donne's "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning" (1633) separated lovers are likened to the legs of a compass, the leg drawing the circle eventually returning home to "the fixed foot."
  8. pertains to actual things, instances, or experiences: opposite of abstract.
  9. establishing one's credibility with the audience by appearing to be knowledgeable about one's subject and benevolent
  10. methods of drawing attention and diverting attention.
  11. the emotional implications that words may carry
  12. exploiting an audience's feelings of pity or fear to make a case
  13. Figure of repetition that occurs when the last word or set of words in one sentence, clause, or phrase is repeated one or more times at the end of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases.
    EX: "...and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." - Abraham Lincoln
  14. A figure of speech in which conscious exaggeration is used without the intent of literal persuasion.
    EX: "No; this my hand will rather/The multitudinous seas incarnadine/
    Making the green one red" (Macbeth)
  15. A method of argumentation in which the speaker or writer defends her own views (defensive) and/or attacks the views of others (offensive).
  16. the specific, exact meaning of a word, independent of its emotional coloration or associations
  17. The belief in the inherent superiority of one's own group and culture.
  18. A word or phrase that is made, invented or fabricated.
    EX: "google it," "blog," "soccer mom"
  19. the choice of words in a work of literature and an element of style important to the work's effectiveness.
  20. The omission of a word or words necessary for complete construction but understood in the context.
    EX: "The eyes of others our prisons; their thoughts our cages."
  1. a Consonance
  2. b Denotation
  3. c Diction
  4. d Emotional Appeal
  5. e Colloquial Expressions
  6. f Defensive, Offensive
  7. g Ethical Appeal
  8. h Euphemism
  9. i Ethnocentricity
  10. j Epistrophe (eh-PISS-truh-FEE)
  11. k Doublespeak
  12. l Imagery
  13. m Coinage
  14. n Ellipsis
  15. o Figurative Language
  16. p Conceit
  17. q Concrete
  18. r Hyperbole
  19. s Connotation
  20. t Downplaying/Intensifying