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  1. This goes at the end of lexis, e.g. 'hyperactive'.
  2. This is a theorist who investigated the first fifty words: naming words (60% of sample), actions/events (2nd largest group), modifiers and personal/social words (8% of sample). First words are often proper or concrete nouns (also known as content words); it appears children find it easy to link a word to a referent. Naming words are encountered on a daily basis. (Piaget's cognitive development link). Modifiers (also referred to as function words) are not necessary as grammar development is more difficult. The social and interactive nature of the first 50 words suggest the importance of interacting with others. (Social interactionist theory link).
  3. Necessary; includes actions and states of being.
  4. A word loses the strength of its meaning, e.g. soon: immediately-short while.
  5. This has affected language because of the introduction of culture, food and drink. English language borrows language to accommodate for this.
  6. Idiom is regularly used.
  7. This is a minor phonological error; consonant final influences consonant initial, e.g. tub-bub.
  8. Children are active learners who use their environment and social interactions to shape their language. Piaget outlined four stages of linguistic development: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational.
  9. In Late Modern English, they used different types of prepositions.
  10. This is looking at the shape of words, linking to similar graphemes/words to interpret them.
  11. Gives additional information that can't be removed.
  12. This is the theory conveyed by Berko and Brown, this usually occurs at 12 months as children understand more words than they can produce. This is because of their restrictions in development.
  13. A word takes on a different, more positive meaning, therefore gaining status. E.g.pretty:sly-attractive.
  14. Leaving out any letters, e.g. 'suddnly'.
  15. A word becomes more specific in its meaning, e.g. wife: any women-married women.
  16. Airflow is partially blocked and air moves through the mouth, e.g. v, z, f and s.
  17. In Early Modern English, capital letters were used to the same as they are now: at the beginning of every sentence and every proper name. They were also used rhetorically for any personified and abstract nouns. They could have been used anywhere where the writer thought it was important.
  18. Two word combinations.
  19. Clark found common adjectives (e.g. nice and big) were developed in the first 50 words. Spatial adjectives were developed later (e.g. wide and narrow). This is because of cognitive development and their awareness of space.
  20. Substituting a letter, e.g. 'discusting'.
  21. This is searching for understanding in the situation of the story -comparing it to their own experience of their pragmatic understanding of social conventions.
  22. Changes in attitude affect language because of the different views held by the writer/speaker. As views have changed, we have tried to be politically correct in order to prevent discrimination against sex, race and gender.
  23. The vocabulary of a language.
  24. A learner's extension of a word's meaning or grammatical rule beyond its normal use. E.g. mouses.
  25. 1. Pre-phonemic: imitating through pretend writing and deciphering shapes.
    2.Semi-phonic: this is where you begin to link phonemes to graphemes.
    3.Phonetic: full understanding of phonemes to graphemes.
    4.Transitional: phonetic awareness to visual memory
    5. Conventional: clear grasp of spelling rules.
  26. This is breaking the word down to syllables.
  27. A word takes on a different and more negative meaning, so losing status. E.g. idiot: widely known-infamous.
  28. This is also known as formality. Knowing the appropriate register of a situation will allow you to understand the implied reader and the purpose.
  29. This was introduced in the 16th century; it was used to link long, extended clauses in the Late Modern English period.
  30. Making new words from old ones and adding to existing words.
  31. In touch with society to make links and connections.
  32. This is an old word/phase which is no longer in general spoken or written use.
  33. This was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson and this metaphor was suggested by Max Miller as he believed that language change is lazy. This metaphor is similar to leaving a wet spoon in the sugar. Aitchinson disagrees with this and believes the only lazy language is alcohol because of the difficulty in articulation.
  34. Making new words by combining two words that keep the meaning. E.g. motel: motorway and hotel.
  35. Dore's function of speech is broader and contextually based. The functions include: labelling (naming), repeating, answering, requesting action, calling (getting attention), greeting, protesting (objecting others) and practising (using language when no adult is present).
  36. This goes at the front of lexis, e.g. 'supermodel'.
  37. This is a way of spelling words that suggests a regional or social way of talking.
  38. This refers to the status speakers/writers get from using the most official and standard form of a language. Received Pronunciation and Standard English are the most prestigious of English Language.
  39. This has been removed (e.g. soote) because people were unsure whether it needed to be sounded or not (the 'e') and so "died" out in Early Modern English.
  40. This is to build and maintain social bonds/relationships to present yourself as more accessible to others of an equal status.
  41. This was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson, it is the idea that you can catch language change and this view suggests that this is a bad thing; you need to be able to fight it. This occurs as you adapt to fit into social groups.
  42. This is the decreased use of phonemes in the babbling stage; this is when people of different languages sound differently.
  43. Invasions (such as the Norman Conquest) dramatically changed the English language grammatically, phonologically and lexically. This is why there is some French-derived language which is still used today. Also, the language of warfare has been introduced into the lexicon.
  44. The typological feature where a portion of the letter goes above the usual height of the font.
  45. This has affected language because English has become a global language as a result of technology and American English.
  46. Emphasis on certain lexis.
  47. Overgeneralisations was proven by Jean Berko who conducted a study into children's pronunciation by adding the -s plural. She gave children a picture of an imaginary creature called a wug. ¾ of 4-5 year olds formed the regular plural.
  48. The syntax (word order) has changed, e.g. the complement of the clause coming before the main subject verb or the adverb after the verb.
  49. Underspecifies the meaning associated with an object, e.g. calling a rubber duck a duck but not a duck in a pond.
  50. This has affected language because when people move to different parts of the world, they take their language and culture with them.
  51. The verb 'do' which is used to form questions and negatives in early Late Modern English.
  52. This is the introduction of a word from one language to another, e.g. chocolat(e).
  53. This is using virtuous errors; link to Chomsky.
  54. This was introduced by Giles; convergence is when the speaker/writer tries to match the language of a particular group. Divergence, however, is when the speaker/writer adjusts their language to be distinct from a particular group.
  55. Consonant-vowel repeated patterns.
  56. This is important because it works out the amount of morphemes and depending on the length of utterance, it doesn't tend to be more grammatically developed.
  57. New grammatical forms are made.
  58. This was introduced by Norman Fairclough, it is the process of addressing mass audiences as if they were individuals and this is usually through the first person, plural pronoun 'we'.
  59. This is the online communication of showing facial expressions and gestures.
  60. Pointing words.
  61. He observed children's play and linked this to both cognitive and social development. Young children use props as pivots to support the play, whereas, older children use their imagination.
  62. This is the understanding of the meaning of words and making connections between words and making connections between words in order to decode them.
  63. 1. Use of no or not at the beginning/end of a sentence.
    2. The no inside the sentence.
    3. Attaches the negative to the copula verb.
  64. This word no longer has any use, e.g. thy.
  65. This is a minor phonological error; the child adds a vowel to make final position easier, e.g. dog-dogu.
  66. She classified the types of overextension into: a. Categorical (categories) b. Analogical (physical features/function) c. Mismatch statements (abstract)
  67. A way of describing something in a more pleasant manner, e.g. passed away.
  68. Describe something as not.
  69. They are read to children to aid them with their speech development. It assists Jean Aitchinson's linking lexical and semantic development through labelling, packaging and network building.
  70. Changing the word class, e.g. a text to text.
  71. This is a major phonological error; you replaces a consonant, e.g. dog-dod.
  72. Sounds created by air through the nose, e.g. m and n.
  73. This refers to the approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the historical context.
  74. Three or more word combinations.
  75. Adding an extra letter, e.g. 'catt'.
  76. One word combinations. The one word acts in a variety of ways: question, noun and verb.
  77. Unit of sound, e.g. 'ch'.
  78. This is the way in which language is becoming increasingly informal in all areas of society.
  79. Affected by the subject.
  80. Chomsky believed in the brain there was an innate mechanism that had the ability to acquire grammatical structures (Language Acquisition Device). Human languages share many similarities; known as universal grammar.
  81. This is the study of letters and the rules of spelling in a language.
  82. Plosives and fricatives, e.g. d, g and ch.
  83. Syntactic errors made by young children in which the non-standard utterance reveals some understanding through incomplete, of standard lexis. E.g. I runned/ I ran
  84. Use of forms that are non-standard.
  85. This was introduced by Norman Fairclough; it is used in language produced to the public which has features of informal, conversational language.
  86. Similar to vowels; air flow goes through the mouth, e.g. w, r and j.
  87. A new word created by shortening an existing one, e.g. phone.
  88. In the one and two word stage, questions are formed as a result of rising intonation. The order of questions learnt are what (classifying objects), where (object permenance), why (abstract reasoning) and when (concrete/temporal events). Yes/no interrogatives are easier than wh-questions.
  89. Discomfort sounds and reflexive actions.
  90. Pronouns express the person involved, object positioning, number, gender and possession. Bellugi formed a three stage theory.
    1. Use own name.
    2. Pronouns in different parts of the sentence.
    3. Subject or object position within the sentence.
  91. Sounded as the initials of the word, e.g. BBC.
  92. Well established forms associated with powerful figures.
  93. He investigated if young children could understand varying intonation. He compared adults and children to see if they could predict football results from listening to the scores. He found adults successfully predicted winners by the intonation on the first team but children (-7 years) were less accurate.
  94. This is part of meaning relations in two word stage. Agent and action: someone performed an action. Agent and affected: someone did something to an object, Entity and attribute: a person/object described. Action and affected: action affects object. Action and location: action occurs in a place. Entity and location: object located. Possessor and possession: object possessed. Nomination: person/object labelled. Recurrence: event repeated. Negation: something removed.
  95. Topic of the clause.
  96. Reversing the order of letters, e.g. 'becuase'.
  97. In Late Modern English, they didn't contract words.
  98. Sounds like one word, e.g. RADAR.
  99. Name given to a product by an organisation, e.g. Hoover and Tampax.
  100. This is the increased use of phonemes in the babbling stage.
  101. (Robin) Lakoff (SA) Her theory is to be polite:
    1. Don't impose
    2. Give options
    3. Make others feel good
  102. 1. Preparation (-6 years old): basic motor skills with some principles of spelling.
    2.Consolidation (7/8): writing is similar to spoken language and this is shown through unfinished sentences and strings of clauses using 'and'.
    3.Differentiation (9/10): awareness that writing is separate from speech. Writing is available for different audiences and purposes.
    4.Integration (mid-teens): this is where the personal voice is acquired and this is characterised by the controlled writing and appropriate linguistic choices.
  103. This involves both social and dramatic skills, this begins at the age of 4 years and this is linked to their cognitive understanding and their re-enactments often use field-specific lexis and often imitate adult behaviour.
  104. She believes that overextension is more common as children base their overextensions on: physical qualities, features or experiences.
  105. They are bound morphemes, they require free morphemes. Affixes are usually the grammatical morphemes.
  106. This was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson, John Simpson believed that language should be preserved like a stately home or a castle. Simpson believes that language is decaying (crumbling).Aitchinson disagrees with this because you can't find the peak of language- it is subjective.
  107. This is the long s that was used upon until the 19th century.
  108. Using sound awareness to guess letters, e.g. 'correg'.
  109. Expression that can't be understood literally from the meanings of the individual words, e.g. bull in a china shop.
  110. This is a major phonological error; the child drops a consonant, e.g. dog-do.
  111. The typological feature where a portion of the letter goes below the baseline of the font.
  112. This type of morpheme is found in the dictionary, they usually are semantic morphemes. They do not require an additional morpheme.
  113. They are words or phrases used to replace those that are deemed offensive.
  114. This is the creation of a new word.
  115. This is early scribble writing.
  116. This is looking at the pictures and using the visual narrative to interpret unfamiliar words or ideas.
  117. The combining of separate words to create a new word, they can use a hyphen. E.g. man flu.
  118. Placing the tongue on the ridge of the teeth and air moving through the mouth.
  119. This is used to create and maintain a professional distance.
  120. Present tense progressive -ing
    Prepositions in, on
    Plural -s
    Past tense irregular run/ran
    Possessive -'s
    Uncontractible copula is/was
    Articles the/.a
    Past tense regular -ed
    Third person regular runs
    Uncontractible auxiliary were
  121. This is making errors when reading: a child might miss a word, or substitute another that looks similar, or guess a word by accompanying pictures.
  122. Stage zero is pre-reading and pseudo-reading (-6 years) with letter and word recognition, predict single words and 'pretend reading'-looking at texts they have previously read. Stage one is initial reading and decoding (6-7 years) with high frequency lexis, vocabulary size is 600 and there is a link between phonemes and graphemes. Stage two is confirmation and frequency (7-8 years) where they are able to read accurately, fluently and the vocabulary size is 6000. Stage three is reading for learning (9-14 years) where reading is focused on gaining knowledge. Stage four is multiplicity and complexity is where the reader is able to respond critically and analytically at texts. Stage five is reconstruction and construction where reading selectively occurs to form opinions.
  123. Repeated phoneme, e.g. moo moo.
  124. This is two graphemes representing a sound.
  125. Acquires new meaning because it is used metaphorically.
  126. Unit of meaning; there are different types of morphemes: grammatical morphemes change the word class, i.e. by adding 'ing'- doing something and semantic morphemes carry the meaning, it can change it. An example is 'dogging', the morpheme 'dog' carries the meaning of a four legged canine.
  127. The removal of an imagined affix on an existing word, e.g. editor-edit.
  128. 1. Gaining attention-getting the baby's attention to look at the picture. 2.Query-asking the baby what the object in the picture is. 3.Labelling-telling the baby what the object in the picture is. 4.Feedback-responding to the baby's utterance. Vygotsky believed that children cannot learn automatically, they need to learn when they're ready.
  129. This is used to soften the meaning of the lexis, e.g. 'wifey'
  130. This has affected language especially since the 18th and 19th century as a result of advances which resulted in neologisms. As a result of the academic prestige associated with Latin and Greek, much of the lexis was formed using these languages.
  131. Name of a person after whom something is named, e.g. (Mr) Dyson.
  132. Overextends meaning to other objects in similar. Overextension is more common, children base their understandings on: physical qualities of objects, features such as taste/sound/movement/shape/size or texture. E.g. calling a cat a dog.
  133. This includes paralinguistic features.
  134. Adds more information to the situation: how, why, when?
  135. Freeborn disagreed with the 'incorrectness view' as he said language became standard for being more prestige, not more correct. He suggested the 'ugliness view' as some accents sound harsh and there are often negative social connotations to some areas. Freeborn suggested the 'impreciseness view' because he believed some accents were lazy.
  136. She investigated play and language acquisition and found children adopt roles and identities as required in a role-play scenario. She said this fulfils Halliday's imaginative function and children also practice social interactions and negotiation skills- this is known as sociodramatic play.
  137. Single word expressing a whole idea. Types of holophrases include declarative, interrogative or exclamative.
  138. She linked lexical and semantic development:1. Labelling-labelling words to objects. 2. Packaging-linking words to other applications: over/under extension. 3. Network building-making connections between words using similarities and differences.
  139. They conducted a study and found early reading is shaped by community and home, reading is developed as a result of childhood experiences. Heath studied three American communities: two are working class and one is middle class. The working class' teaching strategies are orally focused on singing and storytelling. The middle class' teaching strategies are focused on sharing and reading books with parents.
  140. This affected language as a result of the introduction of culture and language (English) which becomes dominant in colonialised countries. Despite the colonial era ending in the 1970s, there is still use of English language throughout the world in those now independent countries.
  141. This has affected language because of people's occupations and technological development.
  142. This is the prestigious form of English pronunciation.
  143. Rise at the end of a sentence.
  144. E.g. be and is.
  145. Open mouthed vowel sounds.
  146. They run along reading scheme books which is a methodological approach. However, you can't apply the sounds to all texts given and it is a long time to memorise.
  147. This is writing only the key sounds, e.g. 'expensis',
  148. It is possible to memorise quickly, you have to learn the underlying principles and it can be a multi-sensory approach.
  149. This refers to the study of historical language change occurring over a span of time.
  150. Grammatically complex combinations.
  151. These are theorists who follow on from the behaviourist's idea that language is acquired from the environment, however, they believe that it is important interaction between people and environment, e.g. through the use of games.
  152. Word-like vocalisations.
  153. This is a major phonological error; it is where a child reduces a consonant, e.g. green-geen.
  154. They were common features to separate clauses to create more sentence complexity since the Late Modern English period.
  155. The growth of the media has affected language. Media styles have become less formal and more colloquial. The modern media is interactive which allows individuals to communicate in.
  1. a Stages of spelling
  2. b The media (context)
  3. c Overgeneralisations
  4. d Holophrase
  5. e (Leslie) Rescorla
  6. f Covert prestige
  7. g Grammatical conversion
  8. h Laterals
  9. i Morphological development
  10. j Trade, working practices and new inventions (context)
  11. k (Lee) Vygotsky
  12. l Social, ideological and cultural changes (context)
  13. m Diminutive suffix
  14. n Archaism
  15. o Phoneme expansion
  16. p Kroll's stages of writing
  17. q Received Pronunciation
  18. r Underextension
  19. s Back formation
  20. t Digraph
  21. u Derivational morphological change
  22. v Weakening
  23. w Cruttenden
  24. x Fis phenomenon
  25. y Descender
  26. z Heath
  27. aa Amelioration
  28. ab (Catherine) Garvey
  29. ac Berko
  30. ad Metaphor
  31. ae (Robin) Lakoff
  32. af Pronouns
  33. ag Clark
  34. ah Chomsky
  35. ai Register
  36. aj Negation
  37. ak (Roger) Brown
  38. al Idiom
  39. am Blend
  40. an Crumbling castle view
  41. ao Substitution
  42. ap Functions of informality
  43. aq Vegetative
  44. ar Phonetic spelling (spelling errors)
  45. as Damp spoon syndrome
  46. at Deixis
  47. au The colon (:)
  48. av Changing capitalisation
  49. aw Obsolete
  50. ax Prepositions
  51. ay The British Empire (context)
  52. az (Eve) Clark
  53. ba Prefix
  54. bb Semantic reading cues
  55. bc Emergent writing
  56. bd Suffix
  57. be Nasals
  58. bf Affricatives
  59. bg Cliché
  60. bh Analytic phonics
  61. bi ſ
  62. bj Inflectional morphological change
  63. bk Conversationalisation
  64. bl Affixes(bound morphemes)
  65. bm Visual reading cues
  66. bn Syntax
  67. bo Overt prestige
  68. bp Mean letter utterance
  69. bq Borrowing/loaning words
  70. br Travel (context)
  71. bs Orthography
  72. bt Cooing
  73. bu Dore
  74. bv Intonation
  75. bw Aitchinson
  76. bx Graphonic reading cues
  77. by Baby and toddler reading books
  78. bz Assimilation
  79. ca Synchronic change
  80. cb Euphemism
  81. cc Synthetic phonics
  82. cd Object (clause elements)
  83. ce Informalisation
  84. cf Fricatives
  85. cg Piaget
  86. ch Phoneme contraction
  87. ci Divergence and convergence
  88. cj Narrowing
  89. ck Eye dialect
  90. cl Telegraphic
  91. cm Over/under generalisation of spelling rules
  92. cn Synthetic personalisation
  93. co Holophrastic
  94. cp Proprietary names
  95. cq Contextual reading cues
  96. cr Stress
  97. cs Omission (spelling errors)
  98. ct Infectious disease assumption
  99. cu Clipping
  100. cv Contractions
  101. cw Salient (key) sounds
  102. cx Questions
  103. cy Migration (context)
  104. cz Consonant cluster reduction
  105. da Functions of formality
  106. db Acronym
  107. dc Terminal 'e'
  108. dd Overextension
  109. de Prestige forms
  110. df Political correctness
  111. dg Adverbial (clause elements)
  112. dh Chall's stages of reading development
  113. di Sound clues
  114. dj Emoticons
  115. dk Two words
  116. dl Babbling
  117. dm Substitution (spelling errors)
  118. dn Approximants
  119. do Phoneme
  120. dp Transposition (spelling errors)
  121. dq Neologism/coinage
  122. dr Subject (clause elements)
  123. ds Dummy auxiliary
  124. dt Sociodramatic play
  125. du Incorrectness, ugliness and impreciseness views
  126. dv Insertion (spelling error)
  127. dw Reduplification
  128. dx Verb (clause elements)
  129. dy Miscue reading cues
  130. dz Globalisation (context)
  131. ea Negatives
  132. eb Morpheme
  133. ec Complement (clause elements)
  134. ed Free morphemes
  135. ee Eponym
  136. ef Initialism
  137. eg Deletion
  138. eh Stigmatised forms
  139. ei Social interactionists
  140. ej Lexicon
  141. ek Pejoration
  142. el Virtuous errors
  143. em Non-verbal communication
  144. en Diachronic change
  145. eo Proto-words
  146. ep Copula verb
  147. eq The comma
  148. er Addition
  149. es Ascender
  150. et Compound
  151. eu Wars and invasions (context)
  152. ev Post-telegraphic
  153. ew Science and medicine (context)
  154. ex Nelson
  155. ey Brumer's LASS