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  1. This has affected language because when people move to different parts of the world, they take their language and culture with them.
  2. Emphasis on certain lexis.
  3. Rise at the end of a sentence.
  4. This is important because it works out the amount of morphemes and depending on the length of utterance, it doesn't tend to be more grammatically developed.
  5. Children are active learners who use their environment and social interactions to shape their language. Piaget outlined four stages of linguistic development: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational.
  6. Clark found common adjectives (e.g. nice and big) were developed in the first 50 words. Spatial adjectives were developed later (e.g. wide and narrow). This is because of cognitive development and their awareness of space.
  7. Three or more word combinations.
  8. Sounds created by air through the nose, e.g. m and n.
  9. Use of forms that are non-standard.
  10. This is the theory conveyed by Berko and Brown, this usually occurs at 12 months as children understand more words than they can produce. This is because of their restrictions in development.
  11. Gives additional information that can't be removed.
  12. Making new words by combining two words that keep the meaning. E.g. motel: motorway and hotel.
  13. Airflow is partially blocked and air moves through the mouth, e.g. v, z, f and s.
  14. This refers to the study of historical language change occurring over a span of time.
  15. Well established forms associated with powerful figures.
  16. Making new words from old ones and adding to existing words.
  17. This word no longer has any use, e.g. thy.
  18. This is the creation of a new word.
  19. Acquires new meaning because it is used metaphorically.
  20. Plosives and fricatives, e.g. d, g and ch.
  21. This is the increased use of phonemes in the babbling stage.
  22. The syntax (word order) has changed, e.g. the complement of the clause coming before the main subject verb or the adverb after the verb.
  23. This is used to create and maintain a professional distance.
  24. This has affected language because of the introduction of culture, food and drink. English language borrows language to accommodate for this.
  25. They are read to children to aid them with their speech development. It assists Jean Aitchinson's linking lexical and semantic development through labelling, packaging and network building.
  26. Two word combinations.
  27. Changes in attitude affect language because of the different views held by the writer/speaker. As views have changed, we have tried to be politically correct in order to prevent discrimination against sex, race and gender.
  28. These are theorists who follow on from the behaviourist's idea that language is acquired from the environment, however, they believe that it is important interaction between people and environment, e.g. through the use of games.
  29. E.g. be and is.
  30. This is a theorist who investigated the first fifty words: naming words (60% of sample), actions/events (2nd largest group), modifiers and personal/social words (8% of sample). First words are often proper or concrete nouns (also known as content words); it appears children find it easy to link a word to a referent. Naming words are encountered on a daily basis. (Piaget's cognitive development link). Modifiers (also referred to as function words) are not necessary as grammar development is more difficult. The social and interactive nature of the first 50 words suggest the importance of interacting with others. (Social interactionist theory link).
  31. One word combinations. The one word acts in a variety of ways: question, noun and verb.
  32. This is the way in which language is becoming increasingly informal in all areas of society.
  33. In the one and two word stage, questions are formed as a result of rising intonation. The order of questions learnt are what (classifying objects), where (object permenance), why (abstract reasoning) and when (concrete/temporal events). Yes/no interrogatives are easier than wh-questions.
  34. Syntactic errors made by young children in which the non-standard utterance reveals some understanding through incomplete, of standard lexis. E.g. I runned/ I ran
  35. This affected language as a result of the introduction of culture and language (English) which becomes dominant in colonialised countries. Despite the colonial era ending in the 1970s, there is still use of English language throughout the world in those now independent countries.
  36. Overextends meaning to other objects in similar. Overextension is more common, children base their understandings on: physical qualities of objects, features such as taste/sound/movement/shape/size or texture. E.g. calling a cat a dog.
  37. This is an old word/phase which is no longer in general spoken or written use.
  38. This type of morpheme is found in the dictionary, they usually are semantic morphemes. They do not require an additional morpheme.
  39. Using sound awareness to guess letters, e.g. 'correg'.
  40. In Late Modern English, they used different types of prepositions.
  41. Reversing the order of letters, e.g. 'becuase'.
  42. This is a major phonological error; it is where a child reduces a consonant, e.g. green-geen.
  43. Grammatically complex combinations.
  44. Sounded as the initials of the word, e.g. BBC.
  45. Freeborn disagreed with the 'incorrectness view' as he said language became standard for being more prestige, not more correct. He suggested the 'ugliness view' as some accents sound harsh and there are often negative social connotations to some areas. Freeborn suggested the 'impreciseness view' because he believed some accents were lazy.
  46. He investigated if young children could understand varying intonation. He compared adults and children to see if they could predict football results from listening to the scores. He found adults successfully predicted winners by the intonation on the first team but children (-7 years) were less accurate.
  47. They were common features to separate clauses to create more sentence complexity since the Late Modern English period.
  48. Stage zero is pre-reading and pseudo-reading (-6 years) with letter and word recognition, predict single words and 'pretend reading'-looking at texts they have previously read. Stage one is initial reading and decoding (6-7 years) with high frequency lexis, vocabulary size is 600 and there is a link between phonemes and graphemes. Stage two is confirmation and frequency (7-8 years) where they are able to read accurately, fluently and the vocabulary size is 6000. Stage three is reading for learning (9-14 years) where reading is focused on gaining knowledge. Stage four is multiplicity and complexity is where the reader is able to respond critically and analytically at texts. Stage five is reconstruction and construction where reading selectively occurs to form opinions.
  49. Describe something as not.
  50. This is the online communication of showing facial expressions and gestures.
  51. Overgeneralisations was proven by Jean Berko who conducted a study into children's pronunciation by adding the -s plural. She gave children a picture of an imaginary creature called a wug. ¾ of 4-5 year olds formed the regular plural.
  52. Discomfort sounds and reflexive actions.
  53. A way of describing something in a more pleasant manner, e.g. passed away.
  54. Constructing a negative in the 18th century was not the same as it is now through the use of the dummy auxiliary verb: 'do'. They were used at the beginning or the end of the clause.
  55. A word becomes more specific in its meaning, e.g. wife: any women-married women.
  56. This is a way of spelling words that suggests a regional or social way of talking.
  57. 1. Pre-phonemic: imitating through pretend writing and deciphering shapes.
    2.Semi-phonic: this is where you begin to link phonemes to graphemes.
    3.Phonetic: full understanding of phonemes to graphemes.
    4.Transitional: phonetic awareness to visual memory
    5. Conventional: clear grasp of spelling rules.
  58. This refers to the status speakers/writers get from using the most official and standard form of a language. Received Pronunciation and Standard English are the most prestigious of English Language.
  59. Pronouns express the person involved, object positioning, number, gender and possession. Bellugi formed a three stage theory.
    1. Use own name.
    2. Pronouns in different parts of the sentence.
    3. Subject or object position within the sentence.
  60. In touch with society to make links and connections.
  61. The typological feature where a portion of the letter goes above the usual height of the font.
  62. 1. Preparation (-6 years old): basic motor skills with some principles of spelling.
    2.Consolidation (7/8): writing is similar to spoken language and this is shown through unfinished sentences and strings of clauses using 'and'.
    3.Differentiation (9/10): awareness that writing is separate from speech. Writing is available for different audiences and purposes.
    4.Integration (mid-teens): this is where the personal voice is acquired and this is characterised by the controlled writing and appropriate linguistic choices.
  63. This has affected language especially since the 18th and 19th century as a result of advances which resulted in neologisms. As a result of the academic prestige associated with Latin and Greek, much of the lexis was formed using these languages.
  64. The combining of separate words to create a new word, they can use a hyphen. E.g. man flu.
  65. Present tense progressive -ing
    Prepositions in, on
    Plural -s
    Past tense irregular run/ran
    Possessive -'s
    Uncontractible copula is/was
    Articles the/.a
    Past tense regular -ed
    Third person regular runs
    Uncontractible auxiliary were
  66. This is looking at the shape of words, linking to similar graphemes/words to interpret them.
  67. Consonant-vowel repeated patterns.
  68. This includes paralinguistic features.
  69. Changing the word class, e.g. a text to text.
  70. Sounds like one word, e.g. RADAR.
  71. Expression that can't be understood literally from the meanings of the individual words, e.g. bull in a china shop.
  72. New grammatical forms are made.
  73. This is using virtuous errors; link to Chomsky.
  74. Necessary; includes actions and states of being.
  75. This has been removed (e.g. soote) because people were unsure whether it needed to be sounded or not (the 'e') and so "died" out in Early Modern English.
  76. This is breaking the word down to syllables.
  77. This is used to soften the meaning of the lexis, e.g. 'wifey'
  78. They conducted a study and found early reading is shaped by community and home, reading is developed as a result of childhood experiences. Heath studied three American communities: two are working class and one is middle class. The working class' teaching strategies are orally focused on singing and storytelling. The middle class' teaching strategies are focused on sharing and reading books with parents.
  79. This is looking at the pictures and using the visual narrative to interpret unfamiliar words or ideas.
  80. A new word created by shortening an existing one, e.g. phone.
  81. Dore's function of speech is broader and contextually based. The functions include: labelling (naming), repeating, answering, requesting action, calling (getting attention), greeting, protesting (objecting others) and practising (using language when no adult is present).
  82. Unit of sound, e.g. 'ch'.
  83. The typological feature where a portion of the letter goes below the baseline of the font.
  84. They are words or phrases used to replace those that are deemed offensive.
  85. The growth of the media has affected language. Media styles have become less formal and more colloquial. The modern media is interactive which allows individuals to communicate in.
  86. This goes at the end of lexis, e.g. 'hyperactive'.
  87. Unit of meaning; there are different types of morphemes: grammatical morphemes change the word class, i.e. by adding 'ing'- doing something and semantic morphemes carry the meaning, it can change it. An example is 'dogging', the morpheme 'dog' carries the meaning of a four legged canine.
  88. Single word expressing a whole idea. Types of holophrases include declarative, interrogative or exclamative.
  89. Leaving out any letters, e.g. 'suddnly'.
  90. This was introduced by Giles; convergence is when the speaker/writer tries to match the language of a particular group. Divergence, however, is when the speaker/writer adjusts their language to be distinct from a particular group.
  91. This was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson and this metaphor was suggested by Max Miller as he believed that language change is lazy. This metaphor is similar to leaving a wet spoon in the sugar. Aitchinson disagrees with this and believes the only lazy language is alcohol because of the difficulty in articulation.
  92. This is the long s that was used upon until the 19th century.
  93. A word loses the strength of its meaning, e.g. soon: immediately-short while.
  94. Affected by the subject.
  95. She believes that overextension is more common as children base their overextensions on: physical qualities, features or experiences.
  96. She classified the types of overextension into: a. Categorical (categories) b. Analogical (physical features/function) c. Mismatch statements (abstract)
  97. Substituting a letter, e.g. 'discusting'.
  98. This was introduced by Norman Fairclough; it is used in language produced to the public which has features of informal, conversational language.
  99. In Late Modern English, they didn't contract words.
  100. 1. Gaining attention-getting the baby's attention to look at the picture. 2.Query-asking the baby what the object in the picture is. 3.Labelling-telling the baby what the object in the picture is. 4.Feedback-responding to the baby's utterance. Vygotsky believed that children cannot learn automatically, they need to learn when they're ready.
  101. Word-like vocalisations.
  102. Name given to a product by an organisation, e.g. Hoover and Tampax.
  103. This is the decreased use of phonemes in the babbling stage; this is when people of different languages sound differently.
  104. In Early Modern English, capital letters were used to the same as they are now: at the beginning of every sentence and every proper name. They were also used rhetorically for any personified and abstract nouns. They could have been used anywhere where the writer thought it was important.
  105. This is a major phonological error; you replaces a consonant, e.g. dog-dod.
  106. This is the understanding of the meaning of words and making connections between words and making connections between words in order to decode them.
  107. This was introduced in the 16th century; it was used to link long, extended clauses in the Late Modern English period.
  108. The removal of an imagined affix on an existing word, e.g. editor-edit.
  109. This is the prestigious form of English pronunciation.
  110. Adding an extra letter, e.g. 'catt'.
  111. A word takes on a different and more negative meaning, so losing status. E.g. idiot: widely known-infamous.
  112. She investigated play and language acquisition and found children adopt roles and identities as required in a role-play scenario. She said this fulfils Halliday's imaginative function and children also practice social interactions and negotiation skills- this is known as sociodramatic play.
  113. This was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson, it is the idea that you can catch language change and this view suggests that this is a bad thing; you need to be able to fight it. This occurs as you adapt to fit into social groups.
  114. Adds more information to the situation: how, why, when?
  115. This is the study of letters and the rules of spelling in a language.
  116. Placing the tongue on the ridge of the teeth and air moving through the mouth.
  117. This is searching for understanding in the situation of the story -comparing it to their own experience of their pragmatic understanding of social conventions.
  118. This is to build and maintain social bonds/relationships to present yourself as more accessible to others of an equal status.
  119. This refers to the approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the historical context.
  120. This has affected language because English has become a global language as a result of technology and American English.
  121. Similar to vowels; air flow goes through the mouth, e.g. w, r and j.
  122. Chomsky believed in the brain there was an innate mechanism that had the ability to acquire grammatical structures (Language Acquisition Device). Human languages share many similarities; known as universal grammar.
  123. The verb 'do' which is used to form questions and negatives in early Late Modern English.
  124. Idiom is regularly used.
  125. This is the introduction of a word from one language to another, e.g. chocolat(e).
  126. This is a minor phonological error; consonant final influences consonant initial, e.g. tub-bub.
  127. Repeated phoneme, e.g. moo moo.
  128. This goes at the front of lexis, e.g. 'supermodel'.
  129. Invasions (such as the Norman Conquest) dramatically changed the English language grammatically, phonologically and lexically. This is why there is some French-derived language which is still used today. Also, the language of warfare has been introduced into the lexicon.
  130. A learner's extension of a word's meaning or grammatical rule beyond its normal use. E.g. mouses.
  131. Open mouthed vowel sounds.
  132. This is making errors when reading: a child might miss a word, or substitute another that looks similar, or guess a word by accompanying pictures.
  133. This was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson, John Simpson believed that language should be preserved like a stately home or a castle. Simpson believes that language is decaying (crumbling).Aitchinson disagrees with this because you can't find the peak of language- it is subjective.
  134. This is two graphemes representing a sound.
  135. This has affected language because of people's occupations and technological development.
  136. Underspecifies the meaning associated with an object, e.g. calling a rubber duck a duck but not a duck in a pond.
  137. Name of a person after whom something is named, e.g. (Mr) Dyson.
  138. The vocabulary of a language.
  139. This involves both social and dramatic skills, this begins at the age of 4 years and this is linked to their cognitive understanding and their re-enactments often use field-specific lexis and often imitate adult behaviour.
  140. They are bound morphemes, they require free morphemes. Affixes are usually the grammatical morphemes.
  141. This is part of meaning relations in two word stage. Agent and action: someone performed an action. Agent and affected: someone did something to an object, Entity and attribute: a person/object described. Action and affected: action affects object. Action and location: action occurs in a place. Entity and location: object located. Possessor and possession: object possessed. Nomination: person/object labelled. Recurrence: event repeated. Negation: something removed.
  142. Topic of the clause.
  143. A word takes on a different, more positive meaning, therefore gaining status. E.g.pretty:sly-attractive.
  144. (Robin) Lakoff (SA) Her theory is to be polite:
    1. Don't impose
    2. Give options
    3. Make others feel good
  145. This is a major phonological error; the child drops a consonant, e.g. dog-do.
  146. She linked lexical and semantic development:1. Labelling-labelling words to objects. 2. Packaging-linking words to other applications: over/under extension. 3. Network building-making connections between words using similarities and differences.
  147. This was introduced by Norman Fairclough, it is the process of addressing mass audiences as if they were individuals and this is usually through the first person, plural pronoun 'we'.
  148. This is writing only the key sounds, e.g. 'expensis',
  149. 1. Use of no or not at the beginning/end of a sentence.
    2. The no inside the sentence.
    3. Attaches the negative to the copula verb.
  150. He observed children's play and linked this to both cognitive and social development. Young children use props as pivots to support the play, whereas, older children use their imagination.
  151. This is also known as formality. Knowing the appropriate register of a situation will allow you to understand the implied reader and the purpose.
  152. They usually referred to themselves as 'one' in early Late Modern English.
  153. This is a minor phonological error; the child adds a vowel to make final position easier, e.g. dog-dogu.
  154. They run along reading scheme books which is a methodological approach. However, you can't apply the sounds to all texts given and it is a long time to memorise.
  155. It is possible to memorise quickly, you have to learn the underlying principles and it can be a multi-sensory approach.
  156. This is early scribble writing.
  157. Pointing words.