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157 True/False questions

  1. LateralsEmphasis on certain lexis.

          

  2. EmoticonsThis is the online communication of showing facial expressions and gestures.

          

  3. (Leslie) RescorlaShe classified the types of overextension into: a. Categorical (categories) b. Analogical (physical features/function) c. Mismatch statements (abstract)

          

  4. Transposition (spelling errors)Adding an extra letter, e.g. 'catt'.

          

  5. Stages of spelling1. Pre-phonemic: imitating through pretend writing and deciphering shapes.
    2.Semi-phonic: this is where you begin to link phonemes to graphemes.
    3.Phonetic: full understanding of phonemes to graphemes.
    4.Transitional: phonetic awareness to visual memory
    5. Conventional: clear grasp of spelling rules.

          

  6. ſThis is the long s that was used upon until the 19th century.

          

  7. Substitution (spelling errors)Reversing the order of letters, e.g. 'becuase'.

          

  8. SubstitutionThis is a minor phonological error; consonant final influences consonant initial, e.g. tub-bub.

          

  9. Phoneme contractionThis is the decreased use of phonemes in the babbling stage; this is when people of different languages sound differently.

          

  10. AscenderHe investigated if young children could understand varying intonation. He compared adults and children to see if they could predict football results from listening to the scores. He found adults successfully predicted winners by the intonation on the first team but children (-7 years) were less accurate.

          

  11. ConversationalisationA learner's extension of a word's meaning or grammatical rule beyond its normal use. E.g. mouses.

          

  12. Graphonic reading cuesThis is looking at the shape of words, linking to similar graphemes/words to interpret them.

          

  13. Migration (context)This has affected language because when people move to different parts of the world, they take their language and culture with them.

          

  14. (Eve) ClarkShe believes that overextension is more common as children base their overextensions on: physical qualities, features or experiences.

          

  15. Functions of informalityThis is used to create and maintain a professional distance.

          

  16. PrepositionsThis is a major phonological error; the child drops a consonant, e.g. dog-do.

          

  17. Complement (clause elements)Necessary; includes actions and states of being.

          

  18. Travel (context)The growth of the media has affected language. Media styles have become less formal and more colloquial. The modern media is interactive which allows individuals to communicate in.

          

  19. (Lee) VygotskyHe observed children's play and linked this to both cognitive and social development. Young children use props as pivots to support the play, whereas, older children use their imagination.

          

  20. StressEmphasis on certain lexis.

          

  21. Divergence and convergenceA learner's extension of a word's meaning or grammatical rule beyond its normal use. E.g. mouses.

          

  22. Stigmatised formsWell established forms associated with powerful figures.

          

  23. Subject (clause elements)Topic of the clause.

          

  24. Non-verbal communicationThis is the way in which language is becoming increasingly informal in all areas of society.

          

  25. CruttendenHe investigated if young children could understand varying intonation. He compared adults and children to see if they could predict football results from listening to the scores. He found adults successfully predicted winners by the intonation on the first team but children (-7 years) were less accurate.

          

  26. Borrowing/loaning wordsThis is the introduction of a word from one language to another, e.g. chocolat(e).

          

  27. UnderextensionUnderspecifies the meaning associated with an object, e.g. calling a rubber duck a duck but not a duck in a pond.

          

  28. PhonemeThey usually referred to themselves as 'one' in early Late Modern English.

          

  29. PrefixThis goes at the front of lexis, e.g. 'supermodel'.

          

  30. Verb (clause elements)Necessary; includes actions and states of being.

          

  31. The British Empire (context)The growth of the media has affected language. Media styles have become less formal and more colloquial. The modern media is interactive which allows individuals to communicate in.

          

  32. Phoneme expansionThis is the increased use of phonemes in the babbling stage.

          

  33. PejorationA word takes on a different and more negative meaning, so losing status. E.g. idiot: widely known-infamous.

          

  34. Prestige formsWell established forms associated with powerful figures.

          

  35. DoreDore's function of speech is broader and contextually based. The functions include: labelling (naming), repeating, answering, requesting action, calling (getting attention), greeting, protesting (objecting others) and practising (using language when no adult is present).

          

  36. CooingThe combining of separate words to create a new word, they can use a hyphen. E.g. man flu.

          

  37. BabblingA word loses the strength of its meaning, e.g. soon: immediately-short while.

          

  38. InformalisationThis is a minor phonological error; consonant final influences consonant initial, e.g. tub-bub.

          

  39. Adverbial (clause elements)Necessary; includes actions and states of being.

          

  40. InitialismSounded as the initials of the word, e.g. BBC.

          

  41. Proprietary namesName given to a product by an organisation, e.g. Hoover and Tampax.

          

  42. Fis phenomenonThis is the theory conveyed by Berko and Brown, this usually occurs at 12 months as children understand more words than they can produce. This is because of their restrictions in development.

          

  43. FricativesAirflow is partially blocked and air moves through the mouth, e.g. v, z, f and s.

          

  44. MorphemeUnit of meaning; there are different types of morphemes: grammatical morphemes change the word class, i.e. by adding 'ing'- doing something and semantic morphemes carry the meaning, it can change it. An example is 'dogging', the morpheme 'dog' carries the meaning of a four legged canine.

          

  45. BerkoOvergeneralisations was proven by Jean Berko who conducted a study into children's pronunciation by adding the -s plural. She gave children a picture of an imaginary creature called a wug. ¾ of 4-5 year olds formed the regular plural.

          

  46. TelegraphicThree or more word combinations.

          

  47. AffricativesDiscomfort sounds and reflexive actions.

          

  48. Analytic phonicsThey run along reading scheme books which is a methodological approach. However, you can't apply the sounds to all texts given and it is a long time to memorise.

          

  49. LexiconThe vocabulary of a language.

          

  50. DeixisThey conducted a study and found early reading is shaped by community and home, reading is developed as a result of childhood experiences. Heath studied three American communities: two are working class and one is middle class. The working class' teaching strategies are orally focused on singing and storytelling. The middle class' teaching strategies are focused on sharing and reading books with parents.

          

  51. OrthographyThis is two graphemes representing a sound.

          

  52. Globalisation (context)Invasions (such as the Norman Conquest) dramatically changed the English language grammatically, phonologically and lexically. This is why there is some French-derived language which is still used today. Also, the language of warfare has been introduced into the lexicon.

          

  53. Insertion (spelling error)Leaving out any letters, e.g. 'suddnly'.

          

  54. Object (clause elements)Affected by the subject.

          

  55. Back formationA word takes on a different, more positive meaning, therefore gaining status. E.g.pretty:sly-attractive.

          

  56. The commaThis was introduced in the 16th century; it was used to link long, extended clauses in the Late Modern English period.

          

  57. Sociodramatic playThis involves both social and dramatic skills, this begins at the age of 4 years and this is linked to their cognitive understanding and their re-enactments often use field-specific lexis and often imitate adult behaviour.

          

  58. AdditionThis is a minor phonological error; the child adds a vowel to make final position easier, e.g. dog-dogu.

          

  59. Synthetic personalisationThis was introduced by Norman Fairclough, it is the process of addressing mass audiences as if they were individuals and this is usually through the first person, plural pronoun 'we'.

          

  60. Damp spoon syndromeThis was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson and this metaphor was suggested by Max Miller as he believed that language change is lazy. This metaphor is similar to leaving a wet spoon in the sugar. Aitchinson disagrees with this and believes the only lazy language is alcohol because of the difficulty in articulation.

          

  61. The media (context)This is a way of spelling words that suggests a regional or social way of talking.

          

  62. HolophrasticThree or more word combinations.

          

  63. NasalsThis is a theorist who investigated the first fifty words: naming words (60% of sample), actions/events (2nd largest group), modifiers and personal/social words (8% of sample). First words are often proper or concrete nouns (also known as content words); it appears children find it easy to link a word to a referent. Naming words are encountered on a daily basis. (Piaget's cognitive development link). Modifiers (also referred to as function words) are not necessary as grammar development is more difficult. The social and interactive nature of the first 50 words suggest the importance of interacting with others. (Social interactionist theory link).

          

  64. BlendMaking new words by combining two words that keep the meaning. E.g. motel: motorway and hotel.

          

  65. Baby and toddler reading booksThis is looking at the pictures and using the visual narrative to interpret unfamiliar words or ideas.

          

  66. EponymName of a person after whom something is named, e.g. (Mr) Dyson.

          

  67. IntonationRise at the end of a sentence.

          

  68. Negatives1. Use of no or not at the beginning/end of a sentence.
    2. The no inside the sentence.
    3. Attaches the negative to the copula verb.

          

  69. Free morphemesThis type of morpheme is found in the dictionary, they usually are semantic morphemes. They do not require an additional morpheme.

          

  70. EuphemismA way of describing something in a more pleasant manner, e.g. passed away.

          

  71. Political correctnessIn Late Modern English, they didn't contract words.

          

  72. Affixes(bound morphemes)This is breaking the word down to syllables.

          

  73. Synchronic changeThis refers to the approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the historical context.

          

  74. ApproximantsSounds like one word, e.g. RADAR.

          

  75. Emergent writingOverextends meaning to other objects in similar. Overextension is more common, children base their understandings on: physical qualities of objects, features such as taste/sound/movement/shape/size or texture. E.g. calling a cat a dog.

          

  76. Received PronunciationRepeated phoneme, e.g. moo moo.

          

  77. Neologism/coinageThis is the online communication of showing facial expressions and gestures.

          

  78. Copula verbChildren are active learners who use their environment and social interactions to shape their language. Piaget outlined four stages of linguistic development: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational.

          

  79. Overt prestigeThis refers to the status speakers/writers get from using the most official and standard form of a language. Received Pronunciation and Standard English are the most prestigious of English Language.

          

  80. Trade, working practices and new inventions (context)This has affected language because of people's occupations and technological development.

          

  81. Diachronic changeThis refers to the study of historical language change occurring over a span of time.

          

  82. ClarkThis is the long s that was used upon until the 19th century.

          

  83. Omission (spelling errors)Leaving out any letters, e.g. 'suddnly'.

          

  84. ClippingThe combining of separate words to create a new word, they can use a hyphen. E.g. man flu.

          

  85. Two wordsWord-like vocalisations.

          

  86. The colon (:)The vocabulary of a language.

          

  87. Brumer's LASS1. Gaining attention-getting the baby's attention to look at the picture. 2.Query-asking the baby what the object in the picture is. 3.Labelling-telling the baby what the object in the picture is. 4.Feedback-responding to the baby's utterance. Vygotsky believed that children cannot learn automatically, they need to learn when they're ready.

          

  88. Salient (key) soundsThis is writing only the key sounds, e.g. 'expensis',

          

  89. OvergeneralisationsA learner's extension of a word's meaning or grammatical rule beyond its normal use. E.g. mouses.

          

  90. DescenderThe typological feature where a portion of the letter goes below the baseline of the font.

          

  91. AitchinsonRise at the end of a sentence.

          

  92. DigraphThis is two graphemes representing a sound.

          

  93. Proto-wordsWord-like vocalisations.

          

  94. HolophraseSingle word expressing a whole idea. Types of holophrases include declarative, interrogative or exclamative.

          

  95. Crumbling castle viewThis was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson, John Simpson believed that language should be preserved like a stately home or a castle. Simpson believes that language is decaying (crumbling).Aitchinson disagrees with this because you can't find the peak of language- it is subjective.

          

  96. PiagetThey conducted a study and found early reading is shaped by community and home, reading is developed as a result of childhood experiences. Heath studied three American communities: two are working class and one is middle class. The working class' teaching strategies are orally focused on singing and storytelling. The middle class' teaching strategies are focused on sharing and reading books with parents.

          

  97. Virtuous errorsSyntactic errors made by young children in which the non-standard utterance reveals some understanding through incomplete, of standard lexis. E.g. I runned/ I ran

          

  98. ChomskyChomsky believed in the brain there was an innate mechanism that had the ability to acquire grammatical structures (Language Acquisition Device). Human languages share many similarities; known as universal grammar.

          

  99. Social, ideological and cultural changes (context)This has affected language because of people's occupations and technological development.

          

  100. Changing capitalisationIn Early Modern English, capital letters were used to the same as they are now: at the beginning of every sentence and every proper name. They were also used rhetorically for any personified and abstract nouns. They could have been used anywhere where the writer thought it was important.

          

  101. (Catherine) GarveyShe investigated play and language acquisition and found children adopt roles and identities as required in a role-play scenario. She said this fulfils Halliday's imaginative function and children also practice social interactions and negotiation skills- this is known as sociodramatic play.

          

  102. Dummy auxiliaryThe verb 'do' which is used to form questions and negatives in early Late Modern English.

          

  103. CompoundThe combining of separate words to create a new word, they can use a hyphen. E.g. man flu.

          

  104. VegetativeDescribe something as not.

          

  105. RegisterThe typological feature where a portion of the letter goes below the baseline of the font.

          

  106. Contextual reading cuesIn Late Modern English, they didn't contract words.

          

  107. SuffixThis goes at the end of lexis, e.g. 'hyperactive'.

          

  108. Science and medicine (context)The growth of the media has affected language. Media styles have become less formal and more colloquial. The modern media is interactive which allows individuals to communicate in.

          

  109. PronounsThis is the online communication of showing facial expressions and gestures.

          

  110. IdiomExpression that can't be understood literally from the meanings of the individual words, e.g. bull in a china shop.

          

  111. Terminal 'e'This has been removed (e.g. soote) because people were unsure whether it needed to be sounded or not (the 'e') and so "died" out in Early Modern English.

          

  112. (Robin) Lakoff(Robin) Lakoff (SA) Her theory is to be polite:
    1. Don't impose
    2. Give options
    3. Make others feel good

          

  113. Eye dialectThis is a way of spelling words that suggests a regional or social way of talking.

          

  114. HeathPointing words.

          

  115. AssimilationThis is a minor phonological error; consonant final influences consonant initial, e.g. tub-bub.

          

  116. ReduplificationThis is a major phonological error; you replaces a consonant, e.g. dog-dod.

          

  117. Grammatical conversionThe growth of the media has affected language. Media styles have become less formal and more colloquial. The modern media is interactive which allows individuals to communicate in.

          

  118. Sound cluesThis is breaking the word down to syllables.

          

  119. Diminutive suffixSounded as the initials of the word, e.g. BBC.

          

  120. Over/under generalisation of spelling rulesThis is using virtuous errors; link to Chomsky.

          

  121. Functions of formalityThis is used to create and maintain a professional distance.

          

  122. PronounsPronouns express the person involved, object positioning, number, gender and possession. Bellugi formed a three stage theory.
    1. Use own name.
    2. Pronouns in different parts of the sentence.
    3. Subject or object position within the sentence.

          

  123. Incorrectness, ugliness and impreciseness viewsFreeborn disagreed with the 'incorrectness view' as he said language became standard for being more prestige, not more correct. He suggested the 'ugliness view' as some accents sound harsh and there are often negative social connotations to some areas. Freeborn suggested the 'impreciseness view' because he believed some accents were lazy.

          

  124. Infectious disease assumptionThis was portrayed by Jean Aitchinson, it is the idea that you can catch language change and this view suggests that this is a bad thing; you need to be able to fight it. This occurs as you adapt to fit into social groups.

          

  125. NarrowingA word becomes more specific in its meaning, e.g. wife: any women-married women.

          

  126. Social interactionistsThese are theorists who follow on from the behaviourist's idea that language is acquired from the environment, however, they believe that it is important interaction between people and environment, e.g. through the use of games.

          

  127. OverextensionOverextends meaning to other objects in similar. Overextension is more common, children base their understandings on: physical qualities of objects, features such as taste/sound/movement/shape/size or texture. E.g. calling a cat a dog.

          

  128. Morphological developmentPresent tense progressive -ing
    Prepositions in, on
    Plural -s
    Past tense irregular run/ran
    Possessive -'s
    Uncontractible copula is/was
    Articles the/.a
    Past tense regular -ed
    Third person regular runs
    Uncontractible auxiliary were

          

  129. SyntaxEmphasis on certain lexis.

          

  130. ArchaismA way of describing something in a more pleasant manner, e.g. passed away.

          

  131. Consonant cluster reductionGives additional information that can't be removed.

          

  132. NegationConstructing a negative in the 18th century was not the same as it is now through the use of the dummy auxiliary verb: 'do'. They were used at the beginning or the end of the clause.

          

  133. WeakeningA word loses the strength of its meaning, e.g. soon: immediately-short while.

          

  134. Inflectional morphological changeMaking new words from old ones and adding to existing words.

          

  135. AmeliorationA word takes on a different, more positive meaning, therefore gaining status. E.g.pretty:sly-attractive.

          

  136. Chall's stages of reading developmentStage zero is pre-reading and pseudo-reading (-6 years) with letter and word recognition, predict single words and 'pretend reading'-looking at texts they have previously read. Stage one is initial reading and decoding (6-7 years) with high frequency lexis, vocabulary size is 600 and there is a link between phonemes and graphemes. Stage two is confirmation and frequency (7-8 years) where they are able to read accurately, fluently and the vocabulary size is 6000. Stage three is reading for learning (9-14 years) where reading is focused on gaining knowledge. Stage four is multiplicity and complexity is where the reader is able to respond critically and analytically at texts. Stage five is reconstruction and construction where reading selectively occurs to form opinions.

          

  137. AcronymSounds like one word, e.g. RADAR.

          

  138. Mean letter utteranceA word takes on a different, more positive meaning, therefore gaining status. E.g.pretty:sly-attractive.

          

  139. DeletionThis is a major phonological error; the child drops a consonant, e.g. dog-do.

          

  140. Wars and invasions (context)The growth of the media has affected language. Media styles have become less formal and more colloquial. The modern media is interactive which allows individuals to communicate in.

          

  141. (Roger) BrownThis is part of meaning relations in two word stage. Agent and action: someone performed an action. Agent and affected: someone did something to an object, Entity and attribute: a person/object described. Action and affected: action affects object. Action and location: action occurs in a place. Entity and location: object located. Possessor and possession: object possessed. Nomination: person/object labelled. Recurrence: event repeated. Negation: something removed.

          

  142. Kroll's stages of writing1. Preparation (-6 years old): basic motor skills with some principles of spelling.
    2.Consolidation (7/8): writing is similar to spoken language and this is shown through unfinished sentences and strings of clauses using 'and'.
    3.Differentiation (9/10): awareness that writing is separate from speech. Writing is available for different audiences and purposes.
    4.Integration (mid-teens): this is where the personal voice is acquired and this is characterised by the controlled writing and appropriate linguistic choices.

          

  143. Miscue reading cuesIn touch with society to make links and connections.

          

  144. Semantic reading cuesThis is the understanding of the meaning of words and making connections between words and making connections between words in order to decode them.

          

  145. QuestionsIn the one and two word stage, questions are formed as a result of rising intonation. The order of questions learnt are what (classifying objects), where (object permenance), why (abstract reasoning) and when (concrete/temporal events). Yes/no interrogatives are easier than wh-questions.

          

  146. ClichéA new word created by shortening an existing one, e.g. phone.

          

  147. MetaphorDescribe something as not.

          

  148. NelsonThis is a theorist who investigated the first fifty words: naming words (60% of sample), actions/events (2nd largest group), modifiers and personal/social words (8% of sample). First words are often proper or concrete nouns (also known as content words); it appears children find it easy to link a word to a referent. Naming words are encountered on a daily basis. (Piaget's cognitive development link). Modifiers (also referred to as function words) are not necessary as grammar development is more difficult. The social and interactive nature of the first 50 words suggest the importance of interacting with others. (Social interactionist theory link).

          

  149. ObsoleteThis word no longer has any use, e.g. thy.

          

  150. Covert prestigeUnderspecifies the meaning associated with an object, e.g. calling a rubber duck a duck but not a duck in a pond.

          

  151. Visual reading cuesThis is the understanding of the meaning of words and making connections between words and making connections between words in order to decode them.

          

  152. NegationDescribe something as not.

          

  153. Post-telegraphicGrammatically complex combinations.

          

  154. ContractionsIn Late Modern English, they used different types of prepositions.

          

  155. Synthetic phonicsThis is the online communication of showing facial expressions and gestures.

          

  156. Phonetic spelling (spelling errors)Leaving out any letters, e.g. 'suddnly'.

          

  157. Derivational morphological changeMaking new words from old ones and adding to existing words.