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What was the French Revolution?
Took place from 1789 till 1799, where people revolted against the French monarchy.
What was Saint Domingue?
Western half of the Island of Hispañola. Now a days Haiti.
Most profitable slave colony in the world.
Who where to leaders of the Haitian Revolution?
Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean Jacques Dessaline. Both former slaves & Petion and Christophe
Who were the gens de coleur?
Free colored people who owned land. There were about 28-30,000 of them in Saint Domingue.
Who were the Grand Blancs?
White elites, mostly plantation owners. There where 40,000 of them in Saint Domingue
What was 40,000 (war)?
The amount of troops sent with Charles Leclerc to take back island from Toussaint L'Ouverture after he named himself governor for life.
Who was Vincent Ogé?
Free man of color who returned to Haiti in 1790 from France, got Enlightenment ideas. He was the first leader of the slave revolts starting in 1790.
Why did Vincent Ogé revolt?
Because the governor of Saint Domingue ignored that all proprietors where active citizens
Who was Boukman Dutty?
He was a voodoo priest in Haiti. Haitian slave who conducted a ceremony in which freedom was assured.
What did Boukman Dutty's sermon cause?
A Slave uprising in August 1791, in the Northen part of Saint Domingue.
Who was Sonthonax?
French Commissioner who abolished slavered in Haiti in 1793. He was a french abolitionist in control of 7,000 French troops in Saint Domingue. Sent with 7,000 troops to control slave uprising after first slave revolt in August 1791.
What was the Legislative Assembly?
Founded in April 1792, gave full citizen ship to all free people of color
Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture?
Leader of the Haitian Revolution
and fought for equality. Was gifted in Military and turned the slave
society into an independent black state.
He switched alliances between Spain to France according to convenience, then turned to slave side.
Died of malnutrition in France after being captured by Napoleon when he discovered T.L. named himself governor of Haiti for life.
What does Toussaint L'Ouverture do in 1801.
Institutes a Constituion.
Declares himself governor for life.
How does Napoleon feel about Toussaint L'Ouverture being governor.
Not happy because he looses 500,000 slaves and colony becomes less profitable.
What does Napoleon do after Toussaint L'Ouverture declares himself governor?
He sends Charles Leclerc (brother in law) with 40,000 troops to take back the island from Toussaint L'Ouverture.
How many troops where sent to take back the island after Toussaint L'Ouverture became governor?
Who was sent with 40,000 troops to take back the island from Toussaint L'Ouverture?
Napoleon's brother in law, Charles Leclerc.
Who was Jean Jacques Dessalines?
One of Toussaint L'Ouverture's
right hand man who switched to fight with Leclerc. Later he became a
leader of the Haitian Revolution.
How does Charles Leclerc Capture Toussaint L'Ouverture?
He tricks him into thinking they are going to get to an agreement and sends him back to France.
How is Toussaint L'Ouverture captured?
Charles Leclrer tricks him into thinking that they will negotiate and sends him back to France.
What did Napoleon tell his brother in law about reinstating slavery.
To reinstate it when the time was right. in 1802
Why did Dessaline take up arms against Leclerc?
He found out that other island around La Hispañola had slavery reinstated by the French.
How many of Leclerc's troops where affected by the yellow fever.
8,000 very wounded
What does Rochambeau ask Napolean?
He asks for reinforcement in order to defeat Dessaline.
But Napoleon ignores him.
What does Napoleon do to raise funds for his wars in Europe?
He sells the Territory of Louisiana for 15 million dollars. or 60 million francs
Why is Dessaline able to beat Rochambeau?
Because Rochambeau was ignored by Napoleon and didn't have enough resources.
What does Dessaline do after defeating Rochambeau?
He declares independence for Saint Domingue in Januery 1st of 1804
Did the French recognize Haiti's independence when it was declared?
No it was only recognized in 1825.
What happened to Dessaline after the Haitian Revolution?
Desaline was assassinated in October 17 of 1806
Who was Henry Christophe?
Leader of the Haitian Revolution.
Captured santo domingo (took part)
He governed the Kingdom of the North of the Island after the Island split. in 1811.
Who was Petion?
He was elected president of the Southern Pepublic part of the Island after the country split.
Who was Boyer.
A leader of the Haitian Revolution, President of Haiti After Christophe and Petion. Reunited North and South.
What was the Rural code of 1826
It was made by President Boyer, influenced by the french law and it had codes of criminal and civil laws. The rural population had limited rights. Women were under father or brother.
Who was Abbe Raynal?
French Enlightenment writer. TL read lots of his work and got ideas from him to add to the revolution.
His most famous piece was "A history of the Two Indies"
Who was Julien Raymond.
Writer of philosophical pamphlets what where distributed during the revolution.
Wrote Progress of prejudice...
What happened in 1697?
Under terms of Treaty of Ryswick, western side of Hispanola was given to the French.
What happened in 1793?
Sonthonax abolishes slavery in Saint Domingue (August).
France goes back to war with Great Britain.
What happened in 1801.
Toussaint L'Ouverture makes a Constitution and declares himself governor for life.
What happens in 1802?
Charles Leclrec is sent by Napoleon to take back the island.
Napoleon signs law that reinstates slavery where it has not completely disapeared. (May)
JULY, Toussaint L'Ouverture captured
Who was the first person to revolt in the Haitian revolution?
Vincent Ogé in 1790, failed and executed.