Commonly used Transliterations of Hebrew + their meanings flashcards | Quizlet
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  • Achronim (אחרונים)

    same as Rishonim except generally esteemed in lower stature due to closer proximity in time to us and distance from Sinai, aprox 16th c. CE to present

    ahavas Hashem yisborach (אהבת השם יתברך)

    love of G*d may he be blessed

    Amoraim (אמוראים)

    sages of the Talmudic era

    Apikores (אפיקורוס)

    apostate

    arayos (ערייות)

    Shorthand of גילוי ערייות - forbidden sexual relations

    assur (אסור)

    prohibited

    aveiros/aveira (עבירה/עבירות)

    sin/sins

    avoda zara (עבודה זרה)

    strange worship (idolatry)

    Bavli (בבלי)

    Babylon (talmudic)

    Bayamim hahem bazman hazeh

    [who performed miracles for our forefathers] in those days, at this time

    bedieved (בדיעבד)

    ex post facto (i.e. the conditions under which one may still satisfy the legal requirement after the ab initio circumstance has not been fulfilled) - or in plain English, "not the best way but acceptable too".

    Beis HaMikdash (בית המקדש)

    The Temple (lit. the House of Sanctity)

    beis medrish, bet midrash (בית מדרש)

    study hall (literally house of expounding)

    Beth/Bet/Beit/Beis Din (בית דין)

    a Jewish court

    bitzelem Elokim (בצלם אלוקים)

    in the image of God

    bli neder (בלי נדר)

    literally "without vow". Since a vow is a very serious thing with all sorts of conditions attached, if one wants to promise something to someone else but make it clear that this is in no way a halachic vow one adds "bli neder" to the promise.

    bnei Torah (בני תורה)

    Sons of Torah

    Bnei Yisroel (בני ישראל)

    Children of Israel (the Jewish people)

    bochur (בחור)

    yeshiva student / unmarried young man

    chag kasher v'sameach

    happy and kosher holiday (greeting/farewell)

    chametz (חמץ)

    leavened product of the 5 grains (forbidden to consume on Passover)

    Chashmonaim (חשמונאים)

    Hasmoneans

    Chazal (חז"ל)

    acronym for chachmeinu zichronam livracha, "our Sages of blessed memory"

    cherem (חרם)

    excommunication

    chessed (חסד)

    kindness

    chilonim (חילונים)

    secularists (usually referring to the Israeli secular population)

    chilul Hashem (חילול השם)

    desecration of God's name (a biblical prohibition)

    chiyuv (חיוב)

    obligation

    chumra (חומרא)

    stringency

    d'oraisa (דאורייתא)

    biblical law directly from Torah (also pronounced as d'oraita by modern Hebrew)

    d'rabanan (דרבנן)

    rabbinic law

    daven (דאבען)

    to pray (yiddish)

    Dayan (דיין)

    Highest achievable level of Rabbinic strata -- one able to rule on halachic court cases.

    din (דין)

    judgement or justice

    ga'avah or gaivah (גאוה)

    haughtiness

    galus (גלות)

    exile - often used to refer to the state of Jews and Judaism after the destruction of the Second Temple

    gedolei hador (גדולי הדור)

    Giants of the generation (i.e. greatest rabbinic sages of the era)

    gedolei Torah (גדולי תורה)

    Giants of the Torah (great rabbinic sages)

    Gemilus Chasadim (גמילות חסדים)

    Acts of kindness (what cultural American Jewry usually means when they call something a mitzvah)

    geulah (גאולה)

    redemption

    gezeirah (גזירה)

    rabbinic decree

    hechsher (הכשר)

    Rabbinic approval/certification; a symbol that indicates a product conforms to Jewish dietary law

    hetter (התר)

    halakhic license (permission)

    ikkarei emunah (עקרי אמונה)

    foundational beliefs of Judaism

    issur (איסור)

    prohibition

    issur schar peulah (איסור שכר פעולה)

    prohibition of being paid with the proceeds from items from which it is prohibited to benefit from

    kana'us (קנאות)

    zealotry

    kashrut (כַּשְׁרוּת)

    Jewish dietary laws

    kiyum (קייום)

    fulfillment

    kofer (כופר)

    heretic

    korbanos (קרבנות)

    sacrifices

    kula (קולא)

    leniency

    l'heichan hadaas noteh

    the direction one errs towards after analysis in a case of ambiguity

    lechatchilah (לכתחילה)

    ab initio (i.e. the law as it should ideally be performed at the outset)

    lehavdil (להבדיל)

    by crude comparison (typically used when comparing secular or profane things to holy/religious ones)

    maariv, arvis, arvit (מעריב/ערבית)

    evening prayers

    madreiga (מדרגה)

    spiritual level (literally "stair")

    matir

    the act of or mechanism through which halakhic license emerges

    mesupak

    in a state of doubt (regarding a halachic matter)

    mevayesh (מבייש)

    to embarrass

    middos (מידות)

    attributes

    min (מין)

    sectarian/subversive heretic

    mincha (מנחה)

    afternoon prayers or particular kind of temple sacrifice

    minyan (מִנְיָן)

    group of 10 Jewish adults gathered together for specific religious obligations (most commonly, prayer). In Orthodox Judaism, this can only be men. In other denominations, women can also count toward a minyan.

    moshiach (משיח)

    messiah

    mussar (מוסר)

    ethics (rebuke)

    neshama (נשמה)

    soul

    olam habah (עולם הבא)

    the world to come, afterlife or future messianic era depending on view

    olam hazeh (עולם הזה)

    this world, the temporal plane

    p'sak (פסק)

    ruling (of Jewish law)

    parnassa (פרנסה)

    income/career

    pasken (פסקען)

    to rule (a matter of Jewish law, yiddish version)

    posek (פוסק)

    one charged with making decisions on questions of Jewish law

    posul (פסול)

    invalidated

    pritzus (פריצות)

    promiscuity

    rabbonim (רבנים)

    Rabbis

    rachamim (רחמים)

    mercy

    Rebbe (רבי)

    Literally rabbi/teacher. More commonly used to refer to the chief rabbi of an Chasiddic sect.

    Rebbeim

    rabbis/teachers plural

    Ribono Shel Olam (ריבונו של עולם)

    Master of the Universe (G*d)

    Rishonim (ראשונים)

    early Talmud commentators and halachic codifiers after the Geonic era aprox 11th-15th c. CE

    safeik (ספק)

    doubt

    Safeik d'oraisa lehachmir

    in a case of halachic doubt concerning biblical law we are stringent

    Safeik d'rabanan lehakel

    in a case of halachic doubt concerning rabbinic law we are lenient

    Sanhedrin (סנהדרין)

    the great court which rules on matters of Jewish law and his been defunct since the Talmudic era

    sephardic

    Jews of Spanish and Portuguese descent

    Shabbat/Shabbos (שבת)

    Sabbath

    shacharis, shacharit (שחרית)

    morning prayers

    Shalom (שלום)

    Hello (literally "peace")

    She'eyla (שאלה)

    question (of a Jewish legal matter) [Yiddish: Shayleh (שאיילעה)]

    shefichas damim (שאלה)

    Killing (literally "spilling of blood")

    shekiyah (שקיעה)

    sunset

    shevatim (שבטים)

    12 tribes

    Shevet Shimon (שבט שמעון)

    the Tribe of Simon

    shkoyach/yasher koach

    See Yasher Koach

    shmad (שמד)

    persecution

    shul (שול)

    synagogue (yiddish)

    siddur (סדור)

    prayer book

    sinat chinam (שנאת חינם)

    baseless hatred between Jews. By the Talmud Yoma 9b, this was the reason for the destruction of the Second Temple

    stam yainam/Yayin Stam (סתם יינם/יין סתם)

    wine of the gentiles (prohibited on a rabbinic level)

    taam (טעם)

    reason, rationale

    taamei hamitzvos

    rationale for the commandments

    takkanah (תקנה)

    rabbinic enactement

    talmidei chachamim (תלמידי חכמים)

    wise students (great Torah scholars)

    Talmidim (תלמידים)

    students

    Tannaim (תנאים)

    sages of the mishnaic era

    techiyas hameisim (תחיית המתים)

    resurrection of the dead (usually referring to Jewish eschatology)

    tefillah (תפילה)

    prayer

    Tisha B'Av (תשעה באב)

    fast day on the 9th of the month of Av commemorating the destruction of the First and Second Temple (amongst other calamities)

    Torah (תורה)

    Five Books of Moses

    Torah sh'baal peh (תורה שבעל פה)

    the oral Torah

    Torah sh'bichsav (תורה שבכתב)

    the written Torah

    Tsuris

    trouble or distress (yiddish)

    Tsarot

    trouble or distress (Hebrew)

    Tzedakah (צדקה)

    charity; the act of giving to charity, which is a religious obligation

    tzionim (ציונים)

    zionists

    Ve'ahavta es Hashem Elokecha (ואהבת את השם אלהיך)

    and you shall love the Lord your God (Torah passage included in Shema)

    yasher koach/shkoyach (ישר כח)

    Modern mispronouncitation of יישר כח (yiyasher koach) -- "May you be strengthened". Used in vernacular as or "good

    yayin mevushal (יין מבושל)

    cooked wine, not considered subject to the rabbinic prohibition on gentile wine

    yayin nesech (יין נסך)

    wine poured for idolatry (prohibited on a biblical level) (literally "spilled wine")

    Yekke

    Jew of German descent

    Yerushalmi (ירושלמי)

    lit. Jerusalemite [Palestinian Talmud]. Also, a type of kugel and less commonly, the name of a particular chassidic sect.

    Yeshiva (ישיבה)

    school for the study of the Torah

    yid (ייד)

    Jew (Yiddish)

    yiddishkeit

    Jewish culture of the Ashkenazi variety

    zocheh (זוכה)

    merit

    Awl Pi Halacha (זוכה)

    according to Jewish law

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