same as Rishonim except generally esteemed in lower stature due to closer proximity in time to us and distance from Sinai, aprox 16th c. CE to present
ex post facto (i.e. the conditions under which one may still satisfy the legal requirement after the ab initio circumstance has not been fulfilled) - or in plain English, "not the best way but acceptable too".
bli neder (בלי נדר)
literally "without vow". Since a vow is a very serious thing with all sorts of conditions attached, if one wants to promise something to someone else but make it clear that this is in no way a halachic vow one adds "bli neder" to the promise.
Highest achievable level of Rabbinic strata -- one able to rule on halachic court cases.
exile - often used to refer to the state of Jews and Judaism after the destruction of the Second Temple
Gemilus Chasadim (גמילות חסדים)
Acts of kindness (what cultural American Jewry usually means when they call something a mitzvah)
Rabbinic approval/certification; a symbol that indicates a product conforms to Jewish dietary law
issur schar peulah (איסור שכר פעולה)
prohibition of being paid with the proceeds from items from which it is prohibited to benefit from
by crude comparison (typically used when comparing secular or profane things to holy/religious ones)
group of 10 Jewish adults gathered together for specific religious obligations (most commonly, prayer). In Orthodox Judaism, this can only be men. In other denominations, women can also count toward a minyan.
Literally rabbi/teacher. More commonly used to refer to the chief rabbi of an Chasiddic sect.
early Talmud commentators and halachic codifiers after the Geonic era aprox 11th-15th c. CE
the great court which rules on matters of Jewish law and his been defunct since the Talmudic era
sinat chinam (שנאת חינם)
baseless hatred between Jews. By the Talmud Yoma 9b, this was the reason for the destruction of the Second Temple
Tisha B'Av (תשעה באב)
fast day on the 9th of the month of Av commemorating the destruction of the First and Second Temple (amongst other calamities)
Ve'ahavta es Hashem Elokecha (ואהבת את השם אלהיך)
and you shall love the Lord your God (Torah passage included in Shema)
yasher koach/shkoyach (ישר כח)
Modern mispronouncitation of יישר כח (yiyasher koach) -- "May you be strengthened". Used in vernacular as or "good
yayin mevushal (יין מבושל)
cooked wine, not considered subject to the rabbinic prohibition on gentile wine
yayin nesech (יין נסך)
wine poured for idolatry (prohibited on a biblical level) (literally "spilled wine")
lit. Jerusalemite [Palestinian Talmud]. Also, a type of kugel and less commonly, the name of a particular chassidic sect.