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  • Tala

    long, complex rhythmic cycles


    Most popular Tala


    modal system (melodies or motives in Indian Music), associated with mood or the time of day


    indian stringed instrument; usually used for the melody


    pair of drums in northern india; looks like bongos; played with their hands and part of the rhythm; can also bend the pitch on them.


    drone in indian music; long necked, pear shaped string instrument; set up so the bridge buzzes with the strings.


    started in indonesia; part of hunduism, buddhism, islam and animism

    wayang kulit

    shadow puppet theater; all night performance
    forms- human actors, wayang kulit, dance


    just theater

    loud sytle

    associated with festivals, processions and other noisy outdoor events; ensembles are strictly instrumental

    soft style

    intended for intimate gatherings and often indoor and involves singing.


    basic melody in the layers of the indonesian gamelan

    kebyar dancing

    cross-dress dancing; music is virtuosic, unpredictable and flashy.

    Claude Debussy

    1889- exibition universelle
    1900- exposition universelle
    "Pagodes" from Estampes; strong beat not always on 1, A/B/A form; wester classical. Possible gamelan ideas; punctuation, esp largest gong, ornamenting layer, Irama level, dissonances, maybe pentatonix scale.

    Layered Texture

    monophonic- one musical line, like a chant
    heterophonic- several different versions of melody played at the same time plus the drone
    polyphonic- multiple voiced (counterpoint)


    -where Javanese liken the gongan to a sentence and conceive of the subdividing parts
    -stronger beats on 2 (med.) and 4 (str)
    -strongest beat is the 16th beat (the only beat where two punctuating gong instruments concide)
    -instruments sounding at important structural points

    Irama/Irama Level

    -gamelan music
    -the rhythmic density of the music that keeps it going, in between the melody


    -dramatization of ramayana
    -revived by Walter Spies (german visual artist) as a tourist attraction


    famous kebyar dancer; the person that looks like a woman and kind of dressed like one

    Colin McPhee

    Book: A House on Bali
    Music: Tabuh-Tabuhaha
    -transcribed traditional balinese music into western notation (for piano, band
    -publicized bamboo gamelan (only using bamboo instruments)
    -revived angklung (tourist music on Bali)


    pentatonic 5 pitch tuning system


    7 pitch tuning system


    mood of the piece determined by the time of day

    Rhoma Irama

    Dangdut singer star


    fusion of arabic pop, sumatran drumming, indian film music and western rock.


    2 stringed fiddle

    Gender Wayang

    four xylophones with resonators are the main instruments
    2 pairs; ornamenting later pause with resonating tones- stands in for punctuation of large gong (slendro tuning system)


    traditional court music
    loud playing style
    tuning system: pelog

    Historical events leading up to Indian Music

    -became a british colony;invaded by the dutch
    -won independence in 1947
    -divided into india and pakistan


    music of the north
    primarily vocal based
    classical indian music


    music of the south
    southern classical
    instrument based

    Music to accompany Javanese Wayang Kulit

    -begins with an overture plated on the gamelan
    -musicians do not play constantly throughout evening
    -during the puppet performance, the gamelan plays music drawn from a large repertory of pieces.


    war story between 2 brothers

    Walter Spies

    Colin McPhee's friend, was involved in the development of the kecak

    Social History of Java and Bali affecting music

    -dutch colonization
    java- 1602 courts helped the dutch and became wealthy; enhanced court ceremonial and musical culture.
    bali-dutch occupy in 1908. courts dissolved, court musical and stage culture comes to an end.

    4 Layers of Gamelan Music

    Punctuating: instrument sound is important at structural points
    Main Melody (balungan): played by the xylophone instrument or male chorus
    Ornamenting: tiny gongs, rebab, xylophones with resonators, flutes

    absolute music

    -skill that is required to play and is admirable
    -for the sake of music

    program music

    -there to create a musical sound thats going on outside
    -written to express something

    abstract dance

    many different moods and characters expressed

    Types of instruments in gamelan

    xylophones, cymbals, different sized gongs, rebab, gong ageng, bamboo flutes,drums

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