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  • Tala

    long, complex rhythmic cycles

    Tintal

    Most popular Tala

    Raga

    modal system (melodies or motives in Indian Music), associated with mood or the time of day

    Sitar

    indian stringed instrument; usually used for the melody

    Tabla

    pair of drums in northern india; looks like bongos; played with their hands and part of the rhythm; can also bend the pitch on them.

    Tambura

    drone in indian music; long necked, pear shaped string instrument; set up so the bridge buzzes with the strings.

    gamelan

    started in indonesia; part of hunduism, buddhism, islam and animism

    wayang kulit

    shadow puppet theater; all night performance
    forms- human actors, wayang kulit, dance

    wayang

    just theater

    loud sytle

    associated with festivals, processions and other noisy outdoor events; ensembles are strictly instrumental

    soft style

    intended for intimate gatherings and often indoor and involves singing.

    Balungan

    basic melody in the layers of the indonesian gamelan

    kebyar dancing

    cross-dress dancing; music is virtuosic, unpredictable and flashy.

    Claude Debussy

    1889- exibition universelle
    1900- exposition universelle
    "Pagodes" from Estampes; strong beat not always on 1, A/B/A form; wester classical. Possible gamelan ideas; punctuation, esp largest gong, ornamenting layer, Irama level, dissonances, maybe pentatonix scale.

    Layered Texture

    monophonic- one musical line, like a chant
    heterophonic- several different versions of melody played at the same time plus the drone
    polyphonic- multiple voiced (counterpoint)

    Punctuation

    -where Javanese liken the gongan to a sentence and conceive of the subdividing parts
    -stronger beats on 2 (med.) and 4 (str)
    -strongest beat is the 16th beat (the only beat where two punctuating gong instruments concide)
    -instruments sounding at important structural points

    Irama/Irama Level

    -gamelan music
    -the rhythmic density of the music that keeps it going, in between the melody

    Kecak

    -dramatization of ramayana
    -revived by Walter Spies (german visual artist) as a tourist attraction

    Mario

    famous kebyar dancer; the person that looks like a woman and kind of dressed like one

    Colin McPhee

    composer
    Book: A House on Bali
    Music: Tabuh-Tabuhaha
    -transcribed traditional balinese music into western notation (for piano, band
    -publicized bamboo gamelan (only using bamboo instruments)
    -revived angklung (tourist music on Bali)

    Slendro

    pentatonic 5 pitch tuning system

    Pelog

    7 pitch tuning system

    Pathet

    mood of the piece determined by the time of day

    Rhoma Irama

    Dangdut singer star

    dangdut

    fusion of arabic pop, sumatran drumming, indian film music and western rock.

    rebab

    2 stringed fiddle

    Gender Wayang

    four xylophones with resonators are the main instruments
    2 pairs; ornamenting later pause with resonating tones- stands in for punctuation of large gong (slendro tuning system)

    Javanese

    traditional court music
    loud playing style
    tuning system: pelog

    Historical events leading up to Indian Music

    -became a british colony;invaded by the dutch
    -won independence in 1947
    -divided into india and pakistan
    -democratic

    Hindustani

    music of the north
    primarily vocal based
    classical indian music

    Canartic

    music of the south
    southern classical
    instrument based

    Music to accompany Javanese Wayang Kulit

    -begins with an overture plated on the gamelan
    -musicians do not play constantly throughout evening
    -during the puppet performance, the gamelan plays music drawn from a large repertory of pieces.

    Mahalaba

    war story between 2 brothers

    Walter Spies

    Colin McPhee's friend, was involved in the development of the kecak

    Social History of Java and Bali affecting music

    -dutch colonization
    java- 1602 courts helped the dutch and became wealthy; enhanced court ceremonial and musical culture.
    bali-dutch occupy in 1908. courts dissolved, court musical and stage culture comes to an end.

    4 Layers of Gamelan Music

    Punctuating: instrument sound is important at structural points
    Main Melody (balungan): played by the xylophone instrument or male chorus
    Ornamenting: tiny gongs, rebab, xylophones with resonators, flutes
    Drums

    absolute music

    -skill that is required to play and is admirable
    -for the sake of music

    program music

    -there to create a musical sound thats going on outside
    -written to express something

    abstract dance

    many different moods and characters expressed

    Types of instruments in gamelan

    xylophones, cymbals, different sized gongs, rebab, gong ageng, bamboo flutes,drums

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