Introduction to Modern Uyghur by Hamit Zakir: Grammar, Lessons 1-3

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  • Interrogative Particle

    -To be attached to almost any word or phrase to turn it into a question.
    - do not use in a sentence which already has an interrogatory word like 'who' or 'what'

    ... + مۇ

    Intensive particle

    -Redirects the question to a previous argument. Like saying 'How about this one' (kinda like the 哪 in 你哪)

    چۇ

    Negation of the Nominal

    - You can say 'This is not xxx' by saying the positive 'This is xxx' and adding 'not' after the phrase

    ھەئە، بۇ قەلەم (yes, this is a pen)
    ياك، بۇ قەلەم ەمەس (no, this is not a pen)

    Pluralization

    -If the last syllable of a noun is a back vowel (a, o, u -- ئا ، ئو ، ئۇ) then add the ending -لار

    -If the last syllable of a noun is a front vowel (all others) then add the ending -لەر

    - If "I -- ئى" is the last vowel in the word, then look to the vowel before it. But if "I -- ئى" is the only vowel in the word, use the consonants as a guide. If the word has hard consonants like G/K, use لەر. If not, then use لار.

    --NOTE: If use have a number, then don't use the pluralization (three student, not three students)

    The derivational Suffix

    - you can add "-er" by using چى

    ئىش ----> ئىشچى
    (work ---> worker)

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