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  • Jewish migration and language development

    • Isolation lead to the developments of different Jewish languages.
    o Destruction of first temple in Jersulam, built by Solomen, in 586 BCE. 2nd temple destroyed by Romans in 70 CE. Which sent the Jewish people into Diaspora.
    • Middle eastern= Mierachi Jews (Judea Arabic)
    • Western Europe= Sephardic (Ladino)
    • Easter Europe= Ashkenadzi (German and Hebrew)

    problems with defining "Jewish music"

    • Not an easy classification of what Jewish is. Jewish music is defined as "...that music which is made by Jews, for Jews, as Jews."
    • Open ended definition, which could be taken many ways.
    • Jewish defined multiple ways as: religion, nation, culture, and race.
    o Religion- used in ritual
    o Problem- when 2nd temple was destroyed, any rituals including instruments were not allowed in synagogue
    o Rabbi's considered songs to be distracting.
    o Music sung as a chant.
    • Nation
    o Israel doesn't have national anthem
    o Jewish folk music
    o Complicated because of many different languagues
    o Jewish folk songs were sometimes changed and populized to other cultures such as American culture
    • Culture and Race
    o Famous people who converted to Christianity or don't practice Jewish religion are still considered Jewish by race or culture still fall into that category

    origins and components of Yiddish language

    • The Yiddish language was formed as Jewish people migrated eastward to Poland and Russia
    • Mix of Hebrew and German (also Romance and Slavic)
    o Hebrew- holy language- Proper names and religious words
    o Romance- Proper names
    o Germanic- developed with migration (75% of Yiddish vocab)
    o Slavic- certain new objects and family names
    • Major language of Askenazic Jewery
    • Show effects of the migration and ontact experiences of it's speakers.

    uses of Hebrew vs. Yiddish

    • Hebrew is the language of the Jewish religion.
    • Boys would learn Hebrew in the cheder as women were not allowed to learn Hebrew
    • Women could only learn the Yiddish language
    • Hebrew is a component of Yiddish
    • T'kines- special prayer book for women in Yiddish (at the end of the sabbath)

    rituals and importance of the Sabbath

    • On Saturday from Sundown Friday to Sundown on Saturday.
    • Dietary= no mixing of meats and milk
    • Havadalah- distinction. Marks the end of the Sabbath
    • Prohibition of work, or anything that might lead to work
    • Shabbes goy- nonjew work to do activities for you
    • Cholent- stew that stays warm through Sabbath
    • Can't carry anything
    • Everything is related to reading Torrah
    • Have to have 3 meals- 3rd meal si the most imporatant
    • No writing, only reading holy texts
    • No business
    • No riding animals (driving now days)
    • Idea of angels
    • Shalom Aleichem- song inviting angels
    • Lighting of candles right before sunset
    • "taste of the world to come"

    Messianic hopes of Eastern European Jews

    • Hassidism- believed in coming of Messiah (core of Hassidism)
    • Olom Habo- world to come, not focused on earthly life
    • Strict burial rituals
    • Messiah=Moshiach
    • Shabtai Zvi- rose to prominence in 17th century and professed to be the Messiah
    o False prophet
    o 1648-1658: Cossack (massacres of Jewish population)
    • Rabbis were connect to the life to come, Tsadik- righteous person who is believed to be a direct line to God

    importance of scholarship

    • Much stress on boys to be educated and become scholars
    • Raisans and Almonds
    o Most famous lullaby
    o Composed by Avram Goldfaden
    o Treat for studying
    • Mother wishes her son to be a rich merchant or schoclar.
    • Hassidism- stepped away from the importance of scholarship and Haskalah looked at the importance of worldly views

    expectations for Jewish boys/girls

    • Jewish boys expected to be scholars. Learn the torah.
    • Jewish girls were the homemakers. Couldn't learn Hebrew
    • Arranged marriages
    • Jewish women close the Sabbath with prayers t'kines
    • Bride price involved

    nostalgic representations of shtetl life

    • Eli Wiesel references shtel life.
    • Lullabies about shtel
    o About superstition
    o Kine hore- let their be no evil eye
    o Reject ideas of moving out of shtel and learning totehr things then Torrah
    • Fiddler on the roof/ Tevye stories
    o Dealt with life in the shetel
    o Romanticized views of shtel
    o Traditional gender rules, faith, arranged marriages, education, and cautious interaction with non Jewish people

    social/educational/economic hierarchy in the shtetl

    • Everyone was at low social standing.
    • Richest people were the tailor and butcher
    • Traditional gender rules, faith, arranged marriages, education, and cautious interaction with non Jewish people
    • Traditional Orthodox beliefs.
    • Traditions emphasized to avoid outside threats

    migration from shtetl to large cities

    • Many men would migrate from the shtel to America.
    • Would try to make money and then send for their family
    • Not always the case. Sometimes the father would make new life in America and not send for family
    • Ex: "Sleep my child, my crown, my beauty"
    o Song about father going to America.
    • Haskalah had worldy views: Avram Goldfaden used songs and plays to educate Jewish people about their culture and outside culture.
    o Created a play taking place in the time of the destruction of the second temple yet references stocks, bonds, and railroads to educate them about the world around them.

    changing attitudes toward love and marriage

    • Arranged marriages were very common in traditional jewish families
    • Invention of love songs progressed from songs feeling anguish about arranged marriages to songs of love
    • Ex:
    o "My Mother Went to the Market"- song expressing mother going to the market to establish a marriage for the daught. Daughter would then go and live with the husbands family.
    o "Oh People"- man kills himself because love has been arranged to marry another man
    o "As I went walking"- deals with the the games played in love. (Playing hard to get)
    • Fiddler on the Roof expressed the ideas of religion in the traditional Jewish society. Three daughters all married for love.

    Tevye stories/ Fiddler on the Roof

    • Sholom Aleichem- author of Tebia the Milkman
    o Earliest contributor to Yiddish literature
    o Used literature to educate
    • Tradition
    o Romantizied the life of the Shtel.
    o Importance on tradition (traditional gender rules, faith, arranged marriages, education, and cautious interaction with non Jewish people)
    • Idea of love
    o 1st daughter= breaks arranged marriage
    o 2nd daughter= marries a socialist
    o 3rd daughter= converts to Christianity (in Fiddler they resolve this. In Tevye Stories, daughter is disowned and it is blamed on witchcraft)
    • High importance recognized in the Rebbi, his views on the future

    Superstition

    • Opposite of Raisans and Almonds
    • Dybukk- Tradegy
    o Talks about spirits due to breaking of arranged marriages
    o Deals with love
    • Evil Eye (Kine hore)
    o Reject ideas of moving out of Shtel and learning aobut other things then the Torah
    o Exageration→ end of the world
    • Tevye stories
    o Daughter converting to Chrisitianity is blamed on witchcraft
    • Hassidic

    origins of the labor movement in Western and Eastern Europe

    • Pale of Settlements formed by Catherine the Great
    • In Russian empire-→ feudalism was strong but their was an uprising of Markism
    • Markism → feudalism to capitalism to socialism (Russia skipped capitalism)
    • 1897- Jewish Labor union formed called Bund
    o Yiddish speaking
    o Hard to convince because Markism dealt with atheisim
    • Protests agains proroms, polic terror, mobilization
    o Ideas coming into shtels
    • May 1, 1902- first Jews became matars of labor union
    o Arrested and whipped
    • May 1, 1905- Jew assimnated ny police commissioner→ movement becgan more matars
    • Songs about May 1st - revolutionary, filled with hope
    • Ex: Yidn Schmidn"
    o Embrace being free to make better lives
    • Ex: Barricade song and "In Every Street"
    o Songs about the uprising.
    o The whole family gets involved and builds barricades in the streets

    musical and literary styles of labor songs

    • Revolutionary, songs of brotherhood and solidarity
    • Ex: Yidn Schmidn"
    o Embrace being free to make better lives
    • Ex: Barricade song and "In Every Street"
    o Songs about the uprising.
    o The whole family gets involved and builds barricades in the streets
    • Make references to Haskalah
    o Say things about better life with birds chirping. Reference nature (which wasn't done in religious songs)
    • The Oath
    o Composed by Ansky (Also wrote dybakk)
    o Anthem of Jewish works movement

    uses of Yiddish language as vehicle for enlightenment

    o Theater was used as a way to teach Jewish people aobut the culture and the world around them
    o Purim- oldest form of theater
    o Reantactment of the overthrowing of Hayem who wanted to exterminate all jews
    o Avram Goldfaden- father of Yiddish theater
    o Haskalah
    o Graudually formlized little stories and songs, then wrote plays
    o Comeides
    o Found ways to perform these on conventional stages
    o Developed Biblical stories (Time period of the 2nd temple)
    • Schulamis
    • Jersualem
    • Source of lullaby Raisan's and Almonds
    • Epsilion rescues Schualism from well and vow to be faithful
    • Epislion marries another women but both children die and he comes back
    • Bar Kochba
    • Akeidas Yitchak
    • sacrifice of Isaac

    conscription in Czarist Russia, effect on Jewish community

    o Jewish citizens forced to join Russian army
    o Most didn't agree and like conditions and wanted Russia to lose war
    o Songs about opponents harming and beating Russian army
    o Ex: Russo-Japanese War
    o Song stating how Russsians deserved to be beaten
    o No sense of national pride

    antagonisms between Hassidism and its opponents

    o Triangle of mistrust
    o Hassidism (Chassidim)
    o Majority of songs are wordless
    o Rabi's masked weatlh
    o Messiah
    o Deemphaszing learning
    o Purpose of hope, joy, and faith
    o Maskilim (Haskalah)
    o Knowledge, outside world, technology
    o Misnagdim
    o "opponents"
    o orthodox belief, traditional
    o Reaction against Chassidim
    o Came because of rise of chassidim and Vilna Gaon
    • Vilna Gaon- emphasized learning strongly

    contemporary Chassidic music

    o Began as wordless tunes
    o Each rebbi created his own
    o Now groups such as Describe and Matisyahu sing in styles such as hip hop and reggae

    origins and development of Yiddish theater

    o Purim- orginated as Hayem was overthrown (wanted to exterminate all Jewish people)
    o Reenactment of this
    o Badken- m.c at wedding
    o Tells stories of each family
    o Broder singer-
    o Improvised songs
    o Entertainment garden
    o Avram Goldfaden
    o Father of Yiddish theater
    o Haskalah
    o Graudually formlized little stories and songs, then wrote plays
    o Comeides
    o Found ways to perform these on conventional stages
    o Developed Biblical stories (Time period of the 2nd temple)
    • Schulamis
    • Jersualem
    • Source of lullaby Raisan's and Almonds
    • Epsilion rescues Schualism from well and vow to be faithful
    • Epislion marries another women but both children die and he comes back
    • Bar Kochba
    • Akeidas Yitchak
    • sacrifice of Isaac

    Goldfaden's ideals

    o felt the jewish people needed to be educated on there past and history as well as the outside world
    o felt they were ignorant
    o used simple plays to educate

    musical styles in Goldfaden's works

    o Plays were Opera's
    o Sung the entire time
    o Influenced by French composer

    memoirs of Eli Wiesel

    • massive pogroms- town almost completely wiped out, rebuild and then more pogroms
    • kaddish- funeral prayer
    • children study Talmund
    • shtel gone after the Holocaust
    • Hasidism
    • Eli Wiesel is antihasidic either maskalah or misnadgim
    • Tsaddikk
    • Belief in dybukks
    • Everyone was poor. They had no running water and no money for new clothes but they were relatively wealthy
    • Excitement for the Sabbath
    • Rough life by want to remember it.

    memoirs of Abraham Cahan

    • Jewish members forced to join czar's army
    o Trappers because quota had to be filled
    • Importance of the Rebbi
    • Renouncing of faith. City shuns and speaks poorly of them. Crime
    • Father melamud
    • Goes to the cheder at 4 years old
    • Mother Covering hair on Sabbath
    o No money handlged on the sabbath
    • Has a lack of knowledge of nature
    • poor

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