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  • Ellis Island

    new york where all jews had to pass through costums

    letter song

    saying how they were excited to come to America but then their opinions changed when they realized it was hard there. Songs include:
    ("My green cousin")
    ("long live Columbus")
    ("elis island" pessimistic view about jews being poorly treated in the US)
    ("the peddler's letter" about families apart who will not see each other again)
    ("a letter to my mother" ease and comfort the mother)

    Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society-

    saught out to help immigrants get into the us without being tricked, very important in helping people and lobbying for fair registration

    Landsmanshaft

    group of jews they would make groups for incoming jews so they could stay together. Tried to lower wage to come into the US. Very organized, helped with burial funds, health insurance, etc, had rules for membership

    Nativism

    is the political position of demanding a favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.

    Boarders

    people who were in small low-income apartment housing, poor conditions, not enough room for large families.

    Jewish Daily Forward (Forvarts)

    new yorks first Yiddish newspaper in the late 1800's, created by Yiddish speaking socialists. The paper defended trade unionism and moderate, democratic socialism. The paper was a significant participant in the activities of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.

    Jacob Gordin

    was a Russian-born American playwright active in the early years of Yiddish theater. He is known for introducing realism and naturalism into Yiddish theater.

    Maurice Schwartz

    was a Russian-born theatre and film actor active in the United States. He founded the Yiddish Art Theatre in 1918 in New York City and its associated school. He was its theatrical producer, and director. He also did work in Hollywood, mostly in silent films as an actor. He was in Tyeve the Milkman play which is where Fiddler on the Roof came from.

    Boris Tomashevsky

    was a Ukrainian-born (later American) Jewish singer and actor who became one of the biggest stars in Yiddish theatre. Preformed in goldfaden's plays.

    Joseph Rumshinsky

    Jewish composer born near Vilna in Lithuania (then part of Russian Poland). With Sholom Secunda, Alexander Olshanetsky, and Abraham Ellstein - is considered one of the "big four" of American Yiddish theater. ("The Broken Violin") when Yiddish movement declined he moved to cantorial music.

    Sholom Secunda

    was an American composer of Ukrainian-Jewish descent. I Would if I Could (1933), musical (song associated with it, Bei Mir Bistu Shein) (my green cousin)

    Alexander Olshanetsky

    was a Jewish-American composer, conductor, and violinist. He was a major figure within the Yiddish theatre scene in New York City from the mid-1920s till death. Born in imperial Russia. Joseph Rumshinsky was his senior colleague but also a commercial rival.

    Abraham Ellstein

    was an American composer for Yiddish entertainments. Along with Shalom Secunda, Joseph Rumshinsky, and Alexander Olshanetsky, was one of the "big four" composers of his era in New York City's Yiddish Theater District scene. His musical Yidl Mitn Fidl became one of the greatest hits of Yiddish-language cinema. (Worked with molly picon and rosenblatl)

    Molly Picon

    was an American actress of stage, screen and television, as well as a lyricist and dramatic storyteller. She was known for playing in roles for men instead of women.

    The Jazz Singer

    movie about boy who wants to be a jazz singer against his father's hassidistic wish for him to be a cantor

    Yidl Mit'n Fidl

    The film follows the story of an impoverished man, Arye (Simche Fostel), and his daughter Itke (Molly Picon), who decide to become traveling klezmorim. Because her father is concerned about the misfortunes that can befall a young woman, Itke disguises herself as a man and calls herself Yidl (molly pican plays this part)

    Mamele-

    In this early Yiddish "talkie" starring musical queen Molly Picon as mamele (little mother), the dutiful daughter keeps her family intact. She's so busy cooking, cleaning, and matchmaking for her brothers and sisters that she has little time for herself, until she discovers a handsome violinist across the courtyard

    Yosele Rosenblatt

    was a Ukrainian-born chazzan (cantor) and composer. He was regarded as the greatest cantor of his time (sung a song about titanic in mourning)

    Irving Berlin

    was an American composer and lyricist of Belarusian-Jewish origin (born near Mogilyov,[1][2] Russian Empire, present-day Belarus), widely considered one of the greatest songwriters in American history, his music forming a great part of The Great American Songbook. Even though he was jewish he wrote white Christmas!

    Zionism

    is the national movement of Jews and Jewish culture that supports the creation of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the Land of Israel.

    Triangle Fire

    textile factory caught fire and killed many young girls because they were trapped inside due to poor conditions

    Morris Winchevsky-

    born and educated in London. Wrote graphic poems about workers and was the founder of the "socialist press". He was the first Yiddish prolotariate poem. He was least successful because people were not ready for his poems yet.

    David Edelshtat

    (the "working woman"/ "In Kamf" poem) worked in a sweatship. Didn't know Yiddish until he came to the US. Joined socialist movement. Passionate and his poetry touched the hearts of readers.

    Morris Rosenfeld

    tried to be on a much more passionate level, was in a sweatshop for 10 years, most lyrical which mirrored his own experience, "my little boy"- father never sees his son because he is always at work.

    Abraham Reisin

    was not a laborer, his style is similar to passionate poetry, was set out to give a message for people to rise up against the government ("Di Vant" struggle against czar oppression).

    Terezín (Theresienstadt)

    was established by the SS during World War II in the fortress and garrison city of Terezín, located in what is now the Czech Republic. During World War II it served as a Nazi concentration camp staffed by German Nazi guards.

    Brundibár

    a children's opera by Jewish Czech composer Hans Krása with a libretto by Adolf Hoffmeister, originally performed by the children of Theresienstadt concentration camp in occupied Czechoslovakia.

    Kristallnacht

    also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, or was a pogrom (a series of coordinated attacks) against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and Austria on 9-10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. German authorities looked on without intervening. The name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues had their windows smashed.
    At least 91 Jews were killed in the attacks, and 30,000 were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps.

    Yom Ha'Shoah

    known in English as Holocaust Remembrance Day, or Holocaust Day, is observed as Israel's day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust as a result of the actions carried out by Nazi Germany and its accessories, and for the Jewish resistance in that period. On the 27th of April/May.

    Henry Ford

    publisher and translator of the protocol of zion

    Jewish Culture League

    During the years 1933-1941, there was one significant site in Nazi Germany in which Jews were still allowed and encouraged to participate in music as well as theater.

    Protocols of the Elders of Zion

    a false document saying that all jews are out to try to conquer the world, they are evil, etc. distributed in czarist Russia (fabricated by anti semetic police there).

    Reich Chamber of Music (Reichsmusikkammer)

    The Reichsmusikkammer (translatable variously as "Reich Music Chamber," "State Music Institute," or "State Music Bureau") was a Nazi institution. It promoted "good German music" which was composed by Aryans and seen as consistent with Nazi ideals, while suppressing other, "degenerate" music, which included atonal music, pop music such as jazz and country, those experimenting with electronics and music by Jewish composers as they were seen to be of non-artistic merit and produced solely for popularity and financial gain.

    Warsaw ghetto uprising

    was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka extermination camp. The most significant portion of the rebellion took place from 19 April, and ended when the poorly armed and supplied resistance was crushed by the Germans, who officially finished their operation to liquidate the Ghetto on 16 May. It was the largest single revolt by Jews during World War II.

    Father Charles Coughlin

    was a controversial Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigan's National Shrine of the Little Flower church. He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as possibly thirty million listeners tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930sAfter hinting at attacks on Jewish bankers, Coughlin began to use his radio program to issue antisemitic commentary, and later to support at least some of the policies of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. The broadcasts have been called "a variation of the Fascist agenda applied to American culture"

    Christian Front

    founded in November 1938 in response to the prompting of radio priest Charles Coughlin, who had called for a "crusade against the anti-Christian forces of the Red Revolution" in the May 23, 1938, edition of his newspaper, Social Justice. Its membership numbered several thousand and consisted mostly of Irish-Americans in the New York City area. They sold Social Justice, organized boycotts of Jewish businesses, and held parades and rallies. They made no distinction between "Reds" and Jews. Their rallies welcomed attendees from like-minded organizations like the German American Bund and Crusaders for Americanism. They heard speakers denounce Jews as international bankers, war mongers, and communists, mock President Roosevelt as Rosenvelt, and praise Franco and Hitler

    Postville

    kosher meat processing factory for jews, the plant was raieded and many undocumented workers were found there and reported. There were underage workers, abused and illegal practices. In response, jewish community decided that for the meat to be kosher they had to obey meat laws but also have humane working conditions.

    Hekhsher Tzedek-

    is a complementary certification for kosher food produced in the United States in a way that meets Jewish Halakhic (legal) standards for workers, consumers, animals, and the environment, as understood by Conservative Judaism.

    Fusgayer-

    people traveling on foot to go to a port to go to the united states

    Klezmer-

    jewish music

    Mambo

    is a Latin dance of Cuba developed in Havana by Cachao and made popular by Dámaso Pérez Prado and Benny Moré.

    Catskills

    became a major resort destination for Jewish New Yorkers in the mid-20th century. Borscht Belt is an informal term for the summer resorts in these mountains in Sullivan and Ulster counties in upstate New York which were frequented by Ashkenazic Jews. Changes in vacationing patterns have led most of those travelers elsewhere, although there are still bungalow communities in the towns of Liberty, Bethel and Fallsburg catering to Orthodox populations. The term, which derives from the name of a beet soup popular with people of Eastern European origin, can also refer to the region itself.

    Tin Pan Alley

    is the name given to the collection of New York City music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Songwriters who became established producers of successful songs were hired to be on the staff of the music houses. The most successful of them, like Harry Von Tilzer and Irving Berlin, founded their own publishing firms.

    The Palladium

    ballroom owned by Max Hyman, major ballroom of latin music in new york, breakdown of previous racial boundaries. Large jewish and Italian clientele.

    Mambonik

    was the name for a certain kind of young Jewish kid in the '40s and '50s who was nuts for Latin music -- mambo, cha-cha-chá, rumba, and the like.

    East Harlem

    where puerto ricans and jews mixed in one neighborhood

    Perez Prado

    was a Cuban bandleader, musician (singer, organist and pianist), and composer. He is often referred to as the King of the Mambo.

    Mordechai Gerbirtig

    songwriter, his best-known songs is "S'brent" (It is Burning), written in 1938 in response to the 1936 pogrom of Jews in the shtetl (small town) of Przytyk. He hoped its message, "Don't stand there, brothers, douse the fire!" would be a call to action. Cracow's underground Jewish resistance adopted S'brent as its anthem. Undzer shtetl brennt was sung in the ghettos of Nazi-occupied Europe.

    Hirsh Glik

    He was inspired to write this work by news that arrived of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. He managed to flee when the ghetto was being liquidated in October 1943, but was re-captured. He was later deported to a concentration camp in Estonia. During his captivity he continued to compose songs and poems.

    Shund

    yiddish theatre in russia that was later refered to as "trash"

    Vaudeville

    is a theatrical genre of variety entertainment. It was especially popular in the United States and Canada from the early 1880s until the early 1930s. A typical vaudeville performance is made up of a series of separate, unrelated acts grouped together on a common bill. Types of acts have included popular and classical musicians, singers, dancers, comedians, trained animals, magicians, female and male impersonators, acrobats, illustrated songs, jugglers, one-act plays or scenes from plays, athletes, lecturing celebrities, minstrels, and movies. A vaudeville performer is often referred to as a vaudevillian.

    WEVD

    was an American news-talk radio station launched in August 1927 by the Socialist Party of America. Operation of the station was taken over by the publishing association responsible for producing the Yiddish-language social democratic daily newspaper the Jewish Daily Forward in 1932.

    Charly and His Orchestra

    were a Nazi-sponsored German propaganda swing band.

    Aryan

    the word for the "white race" according to the Nazis

    Der Ewige Jude

    is an antisemitic German Nazi propaganda film, presented as a documentary. It has been characterized as "surely the most hideous success of the anti-Semitic films" made during the Nazi era. The film's title in German is Der ewige Jude, the German term for the character of the "Wandering Jew" in medieval folklore.

    Treblinka Al Jolson

    was a Jewish Lithuanian-born American singer, film actor, and comedian. Highest paid in the 1930s (in US). Star in the jazz singer.

    Hanns Eisler

    was an Austrian composer. Composer of the German Democratic Republic's national anthem, he is probably most known for his long association with Bertolt Brecht, and for the scores he wrote for films.

    Lin Jaldati

    dutch actress and singer, As a convinced communist it was long regarded as the only official East German interpreter of Yiddish songs, while their repertoire of songs by Hanns Eisler , Louis Fürnberg , Paul Dessau as well as people - partisan and - songs of peace advanced. In 1965, she appeared on the Festival Chanson International Folklore on the Burg Waldeck on. She made numerous radio, television and recordings.

    German Democratic Republic

    colloquially known in English as East Germany, was a state within the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period. From 1949 to 1990, it administered the region of Germany which was occupied by Soviet forces at the end of the Second World War—the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder-Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin, but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the control of the GDR.

    Bulgar

    a klezmer style of music derived from Bulgaria and has a specific meter to it.

    Naftule Brandwein

    the great clarinetist of his time; Modern klezmer is unthinkable without clarinet terror, who unleashed his prodigious but unschooled talent on New York City's professional Jewish musical community in the early 20th century.

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